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Edward Clay

Edited by Gianluca PontrandolfoUniversity of Trieste and Carla QuinciUniversity of Padua

Many myths and deep concerns surround neural machine translation (NMT) and the role specialised translators play in the age of artificial intelligence (AI). The scary idea of ‘human parity’, i.e. the belief that NMT can achieve human quality, sparks off heated debates about the implications of the recent outstanding technological advancement for the translation profession. The alleged threats posed by the results achieved by AI in combination with the gaps in the academic literature about the functioning of (N)MT and its influence on the translation process and product have caused widespread scepticism and mistrust, when not an a priori rejection of NMT. Scholars worldwide have attempted to debunk these myths by studying the actual advantages and disadvantages of using automation. For instance, do Carmo (2023) recently proposed the term “artificial translation” – rather than “machine translation” – to stress that MT does not perform a complete translation process, which would take into account not just the meaning of the source and the target sentences but also extratextual elements e.g. the voice of the author, the intended readers, the purpose of the target texts, which are crucial in any (legal) translation brief (Scott 2019: 81-102).

These concerns are particularly serious in the legal field, where the legal and ethical risks (Canfora & Ottmann 2020, Kenny, Moorkens & do Carmo 2020, Moorkens 2022) related to privacy and confidentiality, together with low risk tolerance and liability, contribute to that feeling of scepticism and mistrust. Thus, legal translation has generally been considered unsuitable for automation (Sánchez-Gijón & Kenny 2022, 85-86), especially due to its inherent challenges. While other specialised fields tend towards conceptual universality and univocity, legal notions and procedures are largely system-bound and historically rooted, which naturally reflects on individual legal languages and culture-bound legal references (cf. Biel 2022). This results in incongruities and asymmetries, which represent the typical challenges faced by legal translators (see Biel 2014, Pontrandolfo 2019). Another distinctive feature of this specialisation is the high variability of the texts and legal conditions that determine the role of translation itself in each communicative situation, i.e. its communicative priorities between or within legal systems, according to the conventions of specific branches of law and legal genres at the national and international levels (Cao 2007, Biel 2014, Biel et al. 2019, Prieto Ramos 2022). Legal translation involves negotiating not only between legal languages/discourses but also – and most importantly – between legal systems and legal genres (see Scott 2019: 31-55).

However, the evolution of AI and MT is changing the legal professional landscape, where the ‘triangle of MT’ (quality, price and speed) still plays a pivotal role. Legal translation service providers as well as law firms are increasingly betting on AI and NMT worldwide. Thanks to the growing quality of MT outputs and the development of custom engines (Martínez Domínguez et al. 2020), NMT and machine translation post-editing (MTPE) are now also used in the legal sector. The most recent version of the EMT Competence Framework “acknowledges that [it] represents a growing part of translation workflows, and that MT literacy and awareness of the possibilities and limitations of MT is an integral part of professional translation competence” (EMT Expert Group 2022, 7). Then, the question is not so much if machine translation and post-editing (PE) should be implemented in legal translator training but when, and how they are and will be used by professional translators (Quinci, forthcoming; Quinci & Pontrandolfo 2023).

Against this background, this Special Issue aims at mapping the new opportunities and risks related to fast technological advancement and the rapidly changing landscape of legal translation in training and professional settings by exploring a wide array of issues including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Implications of translation modality (human translation, post-editing, etc.) on the translation process
  • Quality evaluation of AI/MT/MTPE outputs in the legal field
  • Effects of MT, MTPE and/or AI on the translation product from end-users’ perspective
  • MT/AI performance across legal genres and languages
  • Implementation and implications of AI and MT in legal translator training and/or the professional practice
  • Impact of AI/MT/MTPE on legal translators’ creativity
  • Training of MT engines for legal translation purposes
  • Legal Machine Translationese and Post-editese
  • Ethics & legal MT/AI
  • Potential, drawbacks, development, applications and assessment of Large Language Models in legal translation
  • Gender bias in legal MT/AI

Deadline for submissions: 30 April 2024

For more information, click here.


  • At least 50% of your assignment will be spent on academic research in preparation of a doctoral dissertation. The subject matter corresponds to one of the following research groups of the
  • Department of Translation, Interpreting and Communication: multilingual and intercultural communication or foreign language acquisition and language didactics (; translation and interpretation sciences (; terminology and/or language technology (
  • You will assist in the teaching activities at the department, specifically the courses foreign language, translation or interpreting skills (Spanish and Dutch or English for translation/interpreting).
  • You will coach individual students (e.g. coach self-study, supervise bachelor papers).
  • You will participate in didactic projects.
  • You will assist in the internal and external services of the department.
  • If you meet the formal criteria, you must submit a PhD application to the FWO during the first term.

For more information, click here.

Deadline for applications: 5 March 2024

The University of Antwerp is a dynamic, forward-thinking, European university. We offer an innovative academic education to more than 20000 students, conduct pioneering scientific research and play an important service-providing role in society. We are one of the largest, most international and most innovative employers in the region. With more than 6000 employees from 100 different countries, we are helping to build tomorrow's world every day. Through top scientific research, we push back boundaries and set a course for the future – a future that you can help to shape.

The Department of Applied Linguistics, Translation and Interpreting Studies in the Faculty of Arts has the following part-time (80 %) vacancy: junior or senior professor in the field of Interpreting Studies (French-Dutch).


You will contribute to the University of Antwerp’s three core tasks: education (40 %), research (40 %) and services (20 %). Your role will also include organisational and managerial aspects.

Deadline for applications: 26 February

For more information, click here.

This multi- and interdisciplinary conference explores cinematic adaptation as a
transnational practice between the area formerly known as Mitteleuropa and the US over the

last century from different angles and perspectives, with particular emphasis on German-
American relations. The conference will examine Hollywood films by expatriate directors,

German films based on American literary works, and American films based on German
literary works, including remakes and international co-productions from the early twentieth
to the twenty-first century. Particular attention will be given to émigré and exiled directors,
stars, and crews of the Pre- and Post-World-War years, to the Junger/Neuer Deutscher Film
of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, but also to contemporary co-productions and international
blockbusters. We welcome proposals addressing the manifold forms that adaptation can take
in order to reflect on its discursive effects on both sides of the Atlantic.

Possible topics include, but are not limited to, the following:
- The “literary canon” of US-Mitteleuropean cinematic adaptation (Eric Maria
Remarque, Patricia Highsmith, Vera Caspary, James L. Cain, etc.)
- Adaptation and expatriate directors (Michael Curtiz, Fritz Lang, Ernst Lubitsch,
Otto Preminger, Robert Siodmark, Douglas Sirk, Erich von Stroheim, Josef von
Sternberg, Billy Wilder, Fred Zinnemann, etc.)
- Adaptation and the Junger/Neuer Deutscher Film (Schlöndorff, Fassbinder,
Wenders, etc.)
- Audiovisual translation as adaptation
- Post-adaptation effects: paratexts (book packaging: retitling, book covers, etc.)
and reception (book reviews, etc.)
- The mediating role of authors/scriptwriters/producers/actors in the adaptation
- Adaptation and film genres
- Adaptation and film remakes
- Adaptation and film scores
- Adaptation and place: the double careers of expatriate/international stars
- International co-productions (Wes Anderson, Wolfgang Petersen, Tom Tykwer,

Deadline for submissions: 25 February 2024

For more information, click here.

The School of English and Drama at Queen Mary University of London wishes to recruit a Postdoctoral Research Fellow to work on an ERC-2020-ADG-funded research project, ‘‘Textuality and Diversity: A Literary History of Europe and its Global Connections,1529-1683’ (Action number: 101021262), led by Professor Warren Boutcher (PI). The Postdoctoral Research Fellow will work under the supervision of Professor Boutcher.

The purpose of the project is to produce an interdisciplinary, multi-collaborator literary history of Europe and its global connections for the period between the early sixteenth and later seventeenth centuries, to be published by Oxford University Press.

The job’s purpose is to finalise a peer-reviewed research output (a chapter of max. 10000 words) by 31 August 2026 and to support research and editorial activities for the project ‘TextDiveGlobal’. The project is principally looking for someone with (a) a suitable topic of research in an area of need for one of four sections in the OUP output (‘Works’, ‘Forms’, ‘Spaces’, ‘Events’); (b) advanced editorial skills in academic English; (c) skills necessary to assist in compiling and editing database in liaison with a Digital Humanities support officer (including picture research). Queries from possible applicants can be addressed to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Deadline for applications: 20 March 2024


For more information, click here.

Book translation involves border crossings of many kinds: between languages, cultures, geographies, historical periods, genres, etc. In this conference we want to focus on how literature crosses language borders within states, foregrounding in particular the actors, institutions and dynamics that shape translation in multilingual states. Large-scale histories of (literary) translation are most often written in and about countries whose territorial borders equal language borders (e.g. Frank & Turk 2004; Schögler 2023; Sapiro 2008; Schoenaers 2021).

But monolingual states are rather the exception than the rule in the international system, and many officially monolingual states sustain multilingual literary cultures, whether via officially recognized regional and local languages, or non-recognized variants. How can the state of the art of translation research be enriched by singling out “those situations in which nation state and linguistic unity do not overlap” (Leperlier 2022: 130; Leperlier 2021)? Within any given state, books are indeed often produced in ‘plurilingual spaces’ and in different (variants of) languages (Leperlier 2021).

Do these books reach the citizens of the other linguistic community(ies) within that state, and if so, how? How is multilingual book production organised in a single-state context and what are its implications for nation-building and transnational relations? These questions can be addressed by drawing inspiration from recent work on multilingual spaces and national (literary) translation histories (e.g. Riikonen e.a. 2007; Kahn 2017), literary and cultural historiography (e.g. Chapman 2003; Schreiber 2016; Vanacker & Verschaffel 2022), cultural transfer and reception studies (e.g. D’hulst e.a. 2014; D’hulst & Koskinen 2021), sociology of translation (e.g. Sapiro 2008, Heilbron 2010), cultural policy and translation policy research (e.g. Meylaerts 2011 & 2018, Schreiber & D’hulst 2017, Maumevi?ien? e.a. 2019, Paquette 2019, McMartin 2019, Schögler 2023), transcultural studies (Bachmann-Medick 2019), memory studies (Erll 2011, Deane-Cox & Spiessens 2022) and big translation history (Roig-Sanz & Folica 2021).

Call for papers

In this conference, we encourage contributors to explore how books circulate through translation in multilingual states. We seek original conference papers that address the relationship between a state’s multilingualism and its intra-state translation flows.

In relation to this central question, a number of sub-questions can be raised, including but not limited to:

  • What are the flows of book translation in a multilingual state (direction, evolution)?
  • How can we collect and map data on intra-state translation flows? What databases and sources are available for this purpose and what are their advantages and disadvantages?
  • What role do branding and positioning play in translation flows in multilingual states, particularly as it relates to different genres, themes, authors and mediators?
  • Do hierarchies or other kinds of relationships between languages play a role in intra-state book translation flows?
  • What is the relationship between book translation in a multilingual state and language proficiency?
  • What is the relationship between book translation and (cultural) policy in multilingual states? Which institutions play a role and to what political ends?
  • What is the role of third actors (such as other regions, linguistic or cultural communities, or states) in shaping the translation flows of a multilingual state? Can translation flows be isolated in the context of a single state or should a transnational context be taken into account?
  • What is the relationship between book translation and identity formation or cultural memory creation in multilingual states?
  • Does it make sense to speak of national literatures in multilingual states?
  • What are the usefulness and limits of a ‘national bibliography’ and national ‘legal deposit’?
  • Do translated books that emerge in multilingual states or circulate via intra-state translation flows exhibit specific paratextual features?
  • What kinds of intra-state translation flows typify the (literary) cultures of multilingual states besides book translations? Do more translations take place outside the medium of the book, e.g. in theatre, magazines, websites,…?

Proposals (ca. 300 words) for 20-minute conference papers and a biographical note should be sent to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. by 1 April 2024. We encourage submissions from researchers around the world and in all career stages. Proposals and papers should be written in English. The committee will announce its decisions by 2 May 2024. Selected contributions will be considered for inclusion in a peer-reviewed volume. Accepted papers and presentations will be made openly available with a DOI identifier to promote Open Science.

For more information, click here.

Position Description:

The McGill School of Continuing Studies (SCS) invites applications for a full-time Assistant Professor (CAS) position in Multilingual Digital Communication.

This is a full-time ranked academic, non-tenure-track position with an initial appointment of three (3) years with the possibility of renewal subject to performance. The successful candidate will collaborate with an interdisciplinary team of experts to build, develop, teach in, and make other contributions (e.g., incubating new initiatives such as applied research projects or other entrepreneurial ventures) to the School’s new Master’s in Multilingual Digital Communication, a cutting-edge program and the first of its kind in Canada that sits at the crossroads of the communication, language (translation), and tech industries. 

For more information, click here.

Deadline for applications: 10 Feb 2024

Edited by Carme Mangiron (Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona) and Mária Koscelníková (Constantine the Philosopher University)

The video game industry has become a worldwide phenomenon, generating millions in revenue every year. Video games are increasingly becoming more elaborate and sophisticated, with advanced graphics and intricate story lines, and developers and publishers need to reach the widest possible audience in order to maximise their return on investment. Translating games into other languages and designing games that can be played for a wide spectrum of players, regardless of their (dis)ability, are two obvious ways to contribute to increasing the audience for the game industry. In addition, games are increasingly being used for “serious” purposes beyond entertainment, such as education, and such games should also be designed inclusively, to facilitate access to them by all types of players.

Research on game localisation and accessibility has been gaining momentum in recent years. In particular, the number of studies analysing game localisation from different perspectives has increased dramatically, while game accessibility remains a relatively unexplored topic.

This issue of L10N Journal will cover the following topics. Proposals about related topics are also welcome: 

  • Game localisation process
  • Standardisation and quality issues
  • Game localisation best practices
  • The game localisation industry today
  • The future of the localisation industry
  • Technology in game localisation
  • AI in game localisation
  • Machine translation and postediting in game localisation
  • Cultural adaptation in games
  • Transcreation
  • Humour in games
  • Gender issues in game localisation
  • Dubbing and subtitling for games
  • Localisation of online, mobile phone and tablet games, social games
  • Localisation of indie games
  • Localisation of serious games
  • Video game fan translation
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Video games and Translation Studies
  • The language of gaming
  • Game accessibility
  • Design for all, inclusive design

Please send your articles to the editors of the issue, Carme Mangiron (Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona) and Mária Koscelníková (Constantine the Philosopher University) at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. with the subject: “L10N Journal Game Insights 2024” by 31st January 2024. The author guidelines can be found here. The publication of the issue is planned for June 2024.

For more information, click here.

Co-Editors of the issue:

Prof. Sherry Simon, PhD

Dr. Krzysztof Majer

With this volume, we aim to stimulate an interdisciplinary discussion of translation—its nature, processes, and capacities—in the context of urban space and various attendant modes of mobility. As Siri Nergaard reminds us, translation always implies a spatial dimension: inevitably “conditioned by space,” it can also “promote or provoke changes in the perception and the use of spaces and places” (9). This necessitates a different conceptualization of space as “a site where production and interpretation are intermingled, where translations occur and where identity is reinterpreted” (Simon, “Introduction” 11).

We are interested not only in how cultural transfer is enabled and negotiated, but also in actions that may limit or impede transmissibility. After all, the central figure invoked in Sherry Simon’s Cities in Translation is that of Hermes: “the god of both separation and connection [who] protects boundaries but through his magical powers also provides safe passage for travellers” (xv–xvii). This highly unstable entity—“messenger and trickster, trader and thief” (Simon, Cities xvii)—can also be seen as “a hermeneut: an inquiring mind, an interpreter of texts and a mediator across languages” (xvii–xviii).

The prospective volume is designed to continue, and expand on, various strands of scholarly discussion initiated by Sherry Simon’s publications (e.g., Translation Sites: A Field Guide, 2019; Cities in TranslationIntersections of Language and Memory, 2012; Translating Montreal: Episodes in the Life of a Divided City, 2006), The Routledge Handbook of Translation and the City (edited by Tong King Lee, 2021), the “Space” issue of Translation: A Transdisciplinary Journal (vol. 7, edited by Sherry Simon and Siri Nergaard, 2018), and the “The City as Translation Zone” issue of Translation Studies (vol. 7, no. 2, edited by Michael Cronin and Sherry Simon, 2014), among others.

We invite researchers in all fields related to translation to submit papers that will engage with the histories and contemporary lives of cities across the globe, not only Europe and North America, but also cities in Africa, Asia, Latin America. Former colonial cities are of particular interest as they develop new relationships across histories. Also of interest are symbolic sites in cities that bring together languages in specific ways: markets, hotels, bridges, opera houses. Translation and language relations can be approached through a great variety of methods—whether it be sociolinguistics, literature, communication theory, or artistic practices, including cinema.

Researchers are invited to engage with the following (the list is not exhaustive):

  • relationships between language and urban space;
  • translational/dual cities;
  • urban zones of translational resistance;
  • cultural meanings shaped through language interaction within the city;
  • urban forces impeding the transfer of language and memory;
  • dialogues between cities;
  • the city as translational palimpsest;
  • contested memories;
  • postcoloniality and translation spaces;
  • literary accounts of the multilingual city;
  • symbolic sites of language encounter;
  • artistic practices of language encounter, including avant-garde and experimental forms;
  • translators as city dwellers and cultural agents;
  • cities translated through violence, occupation, appropriation;
  • neighbours, strangers, immigrants, foreigners: translating otherness in the city.

Deadline for submissions: 31 Jan 2024

For more information, click here.

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