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Edward Clay

Guest Editors: Jinsil CHOI, Jonathan EVANS and Kyung Hye KIM 

 

This special issue will investigate the role of translation in the rapidly changing and developing environment of global media streaming. While there have been calls to ‘recenter globalization’ since the early 2000s (e.g. Iwabuchi 2002), since the late 2000s the development of streaming media has effectively disrupted older linear flow patterns of film and media distribution and consumption. There is now globally more access in translation to what had been marginalised cultures in the global media ecology, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Nigeria. In turn, these so-called marginalised cultures in the global media ecology, which had been previously largely dominated by Hollywood, now enjoy wider access in translation to media cultures which had been much less explored or ignored in their home cultures: Korean audiences having a greater access to Danish, German, and Spanish media, for instance. Streaming service platforms turned content creators such as Amazon, Netflix and Rakuten Viki are in the process of overturning previous understandings of the global mediasphere and accelerating the dynamics of the media landscape, enabling contraflow of media content and de/recentering understandings of global media production. Increasingly invested in international services, streaming companies’ practices fragment, deconstruct and reconfigure media space.

Video streaming sites such as Youtube, where original content is also distributed, contribute to this refashioning of media distribution and reception and further complicate the relationship between translator, content provider and creator.  Yet the process is not limited to disruptive new companies: established multinational media and technology companies such as Disney and Apple have recently launched new streaming services, suggesting that the field is in a constant process of reconfiguration as different agents emerge, rise to power or struggle to hold market share. The effect of the Covid-19 pandemic has yet to be fully understood, but streaming has been a significant part of people’s media consumption during lockdown, and is expected to precipitate pronounced reconfiguration of the contemporary global media ecosystem. While there is a growing body of work on streaming from media studies (Dixon 2013; Smith and Telang 2016; Johnson 2018; Lobato 2019; Pallister 2019), there has been considerably less research on the relationship between translation and streaming (with the exceptions of Dwyer 2017; Pedersen 2018).

Translation is central to these recent disruptions of the media field, as streaming providers offer most media content in translated versions, be it dubbed or subtitled, propelling the cultural mobility of media content across national and linguistic borders. Netflix, for example, functions as a particularly disruptive force by offering an ever wider range of genres and non-English language series tailored to specific groups of people around the world (Barker and Wiatrowski 2017), to the extent that it supported more than 20 languages by 2017 and approached “an inflection point where English won’t be the primary viewing experience on Netflix” (Netflix 2017). Not all translations on streaming platforms are official, and there continue to be thriving fan translation cultures on streaming platforms such as Youtube and Viki which offer access to media between what Casanova (1999) calls ‘dominated’ cultures, as well as between ‘dominating’ and ‘dominated’ cultures. This increasing fluidity is having a significant effect on Anglosphere understandings of world media, which had previously seen ‘foreign’ film and TV as elite, highbrow productions but now, especially through streaming platforms and fansubbing, more popular media such as Korean soap operas or Chinese teenage TV dramas are becoming widely available. As such, Eurocentric notions of popular media (Shohat and Stam 1994) need rethinking to take into account the increasing circulation of media products from around the world and the shifting balances of soft power (Nye 2004) related to the streaming of media content. How, for instance, does access to Chinese soap operas in translation affect the image of China in the world and its soft power? How does streaming invert and alter previous hierarchies? At the same time, the massive abundance of available media around the globe is creating a scarcity of attention and affecting a new attention ecology (Citton 2017) which risks ‘dominated’ languages and cultures being overlooked in the sheer quantity of ‘dominating’ language production. How then do streaming and translation filter media for consumers? Are streaming services and video sites reinforcing, or challenging, existing inequalities of access and distribution through curation and selection of languages to translate into? What effect is this having on the dominance of ‘global’ English? Importantly, how does the curation of media content through translation and streaming promote or silence communities such as the LGBT community, the Deaf or ethnic minorities? It is not a given that access to media from many different nations will be representative of the diversity within those nations. How do notions of alterity change in globalised media?

The topic of translation and streaming, then, has significant relationships not only with language and contemporary media consumption, but also soft power and global understandings of alterity. This special issue aims to explore the role of translation in the streaming epoch, especially in relation to the shifting definition of ‘peripheral/dominated’ and ‘central/dominating’ media producing cultures. We welcome contributions critically addressing translation (understood broadly) in the global media environment that has been created in relation to streaming and on demand services. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:
•       Video streaming giants (e.g. Netflix, Amazon) and translation
•       Transnational and translational co-productions for international streaming
•       Shifting notions of centre/dominant and periphery/dominated and ways of retheorising the position of cultures in the current media ecology
•       Streaming, translation and the asymmetrical media environment
•       Minoritised groups in translation and streaming media
•       Translation as a form of curation of media
•       Economies of attention, digital distribution and translation
•       Shadow economies of media translation and their effects on global circulation
•       South-South or other ‘dominated-dominated’ translation practices (i.e. that do not pass through ‘dominant’ languages) for popular media

Please send any queries to the special issue editors, Jinsil CHOI (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.), Jonathan EVANS (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) and Kyung Hye KIM (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.). The deadline for abstracts (400-500 words) is 1 February 2021, to be submitted to the special issue editors.

Submission of abstracts: 1 February 2021

For more information, click here

The Centre for Translation Studies (CTS) is an internationally recognised centre for research, scholarship and teaching in translation and interpreting, and has recently been awarded a £3.56m Expanding Excellence in England grant to launch an ambitious new research programme. This programme will bring together human-based research practices with cutting-edge advances in machine learning and AI, focusing on the convergence of human and automated approaches to different modalities of translation and interpreting in order to initiate a step-change in the broader translation research agenda.

To support the expansion programme, we seek to appoint a Postdoctoral Research Fellow with expertise in applying natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) approaches to problems in translation or interpreting studies. The successful candidate will undertake research relevant to current and future projects in CTS, with a specific focus on designing, creating, and applying NLP-based methods within translation/interpreting research. S/he will contribute to the development of this area within CTS. The success of the research programme requires multidisciplinary collaborations. Good communication, presentation and project management skills are therefore essential as is a strong interest in combining human and automated approaches to translation/interpreting. Experience in the development of research proposals and in securing external research funding would be a plus.

Deadline for applications: 18 September 2020

For more information, click here

The Institute of Translation Studies at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities is looking for a is looking for a

University Assistant with doctorate

(40 hours a week; fixed-term employment for the period of 6 years; position to be filled as of October 12th 2020 )

Your duties

  • Independent research and scientific collaboration in the research area "Translation and cooperation in times of technocapitalism"
  • Possibility to write an empirically based postdoctoral thesis (habilitation) with a focus on translation technology and (digital) translation didactics
  • Preparation of a structured overview of new developments and innovations in translation technology and digital translation didactics
  • Publications in scientific journals and/or other forms of knowledge transfer (dissemination of knowledge)
  • Assistance in the acquisition of external funding
  • Contribution to existing and new research projects
  • Participation in and co-organisation of workshops, symposia and conferences
  • Teaching of courses, among others in the field of translation technology
  • Student support
  • Administration related to research and teaching

Your profile

  • Doctorate in translation science with a reference to translation technology and/or (digital) translation didactics
  • Excellent knowledge of the theories and methods of translation studies
  • Comprehensive theoretical and practical knowledge of (new) translation technologies
  • Familiarity with didactic approaches and methods in translation studies, preferably in relation to (new) translation technologies
  • International experience and (preferably international) publications
  • Experience in applying for external funding is desired
  • Experience in organising academic events
  • Experience in teaching translation studies courses
  • Openness to tread new paths in (digital) translation didactics
  • Very good computer skills, preferably with a background in language technology, computational linguistics or computer science
  • Very good knowledge of German and English and good knowledge of at least one other language taught at the institute
  • Taking pleasure in research, teaching and student support
  • Intercultural competence
  • Communication, organisational and above all teamwork skills
  • Commitment, personal initiative and proactive action
  • Reliability, resilience and flexibility

Application deadline: 9 September 2020

For more information, click here

Professor/Research Professor, El Colegio de México. French-Spanish Translation Teaching, Expertise, and Research.

Application deadline: 30 September

For more information, click here

Applications are invited from suitably qualified candidates for the following position

Postdoctoral Researcher in Statistical Machine Translation (Two Posts)

ADAPT Centre, Centre for Digital Content Platform Research

Level on the Career Framework: Level 1

FTC up to 2 years

Overview
As part of this role the researcher will be required to participate in the DCU Research Career Framework. This framework is designed to provide significant professional development opportunities to Researchers and offer the best opportunities in terms of a wider career path. The role may include teaching duties to assist with module delivery.

Background
Dublin City University (www.dcu.ie) is a research-intensive, globally-engaged, dynamic institution that is distinguished by both the quality and impact of its graduates and its focus on the translation of knowledge into societal and economic benefit. DCU prepares its students well for success in life, and in the workplace, by providing a high-quality, rounded education appropriate to the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. As Ireland’s University of Enterprise and Transformation, DCU is characterised by a focus on innovation and entrepreneurship and a track-record of effective engagement with the enterprise sector, including commercial, social and cultural enterprises. Excellence in its education and research activities has led to DCU’s consistent position in the rankings of the world’s top young universities.

The ADAPT Centre for digital content platform technology seeks to appoint two postdoctoral researchers in Neural Machine Translation (NMT) on the targeted research programme which addresses the research and development interests of ADAPT industry partners. It is envisaged that the first of the two posts will commence in September 2020, and the second in January 2021. ADAPT is Ireland’s global centre of excellence for digital content technology. Led by TCD, it combines the expertise of researchers at four universities (Trinity College Dublin, Dublin City University, University College Dublin, and Dublin Institute of Technology) with that of its industry partners to produce ground-breaking digital content innovations. ADAPT brings together more than 150 researchers who collectively have won more than €100m in funding and have a strong track record of transferring world-leading research and innovations to more than 140 companies. With €50M in new research funding from Science Foundation Ireland and industry, ADAPT is seeking talented individuals to join its growing research team. Our research and technologies will continue to help businesses in all sectors and drive back the frontiers of future Web engagement.

Principle Duties and Responsibilities
The successful candidates will work within a large group of post-doctoral researchers, PhD students and software developers. The work of these post-doctoral researchers will be fundamental in applying ADAPT research breakthroughs in NMT to application areas identified by our commercial
partners, with whom the researcher will work closely. Reporting to the Principal Investigator, the Postdoctoral Researcher will:

  • Research solutions to problems identified by industry partners in the application of MT in their translation pipelines. This may include, but is not limited to, the following:
    • data selection in NMT,
    • the utility of synthetic data in MT models,
    • MT for social media content,
    • MT and post-editing,
    • MT for literary content,
    • MT in indirect translation workflows,
    • MT for low-resource scenarios,
    • integration of terminology in MT models,
    • hybrid MT systems,
    • multimodal MT,
    • dialogue MT,
    • cross-lingual search.
  • Produce top-quality journal and conference publications, in partnership with the PI, and, where appropriate, industry partners.
  • Identify and write proposals for research funding.
  • Participate in ADAPT Centre activities, such as industry showcases and annual reviews.
  • Provide assistance and advice to any PhD students working on the same project.
  • Contribute to teaching and supervision in the School of Computing.
  • Report on progress at meetings and in writing to ADAPT Centre Management.
  • Assist in identifying and developing future research and funding initiatives.
  • Engage in the dissemination of the results of the research in which he/she is engaged with the assistance of and under the supervision of the Principal Investigator.
  • Engage in appropriate training and development opportunities as required by the Principal Investigator, the School or Research Centre, or the University.
  • Liaise with both internal and external stakeholders including industry and academic partners/collaborators.
  • Carry out administrative work associated with the programme of research as necessary.

Qualifications, Skills and Experience Required
The ideal candidate will have PhD in Machine Translation or a related discipline. In addition, it is desirable that the candidate has:

  • Demonstrable experience in the translation and/or localisation industry.
  • A strong background in statistical machine translation and translation technology, with a particular emphasis on neural models of MT
  • Excellent machine-learning skills.
  • Excellent programming skills.
  • Excellent research skills, with experience, ideally, in the following:
    • NMT system-building and deployment expertise,
    • MT in low-resource situations (domains, or language pairs),
    • Up-to-date knowledge of the main areas of application for NMT in industry and academia.

Mandatory Training
The post holder will be required to undertake the following mandatory compliance training: Orientation, Health and Safety and Intellectual Property and Data Protection training. Other training may need to be undertaken when required.

Candidates will be assessed on the following competencies:
Discipline knowledge and Research skills – Demonstrates knowledge of a research discipline and the ability to conduct a specific programme of research within that discipline.

Understanding the Research Environment – Demonstrates an awareness of the research environment (for example funding bodies) and the ability to contribute to grant applications.

Communicating Research – Demonstrates the ability to convey their research with their peers and the wider research community (for example presenting at conferences and publishing research in relevant journals) and the potential to teach and tutor students.

Managing & Leadership skills – Demonstrates the potential to manage a research project including the supervision of undergraduate students.

For more information, click here

Postdoc in Translation Studies at Lingnan University in Hong Kong. Contact person: Dr. Wayne Liang This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

For more information, click here

This groundbreaking book explores the relevance of queer theory to Translation Studies and of translation to Global Sexuality Studies. Beginning with a comprehensive overview of the origins and evolution of queer theory, this book places queer theory and Translation Studies in a productive and mutually interrogating relationship.

After framing the discussion of actual and potential interfaces between queer sexuality and queer textuality, the chapters trace the transnational circulation of queer texts, focusing on the place of translation in "gay" anthologies, the packaging of queer life writing for global audiences, and the translation of lyric poetry as a distinct site of queer performativity. Baer analyzes fictional translators in literature and film, the treatment of translation in historical and ethnographic studies of sexual and linguistic others, the work of queer translators, and the reception of queer texts in translation.

Including a range of case studies to exemplify key ethical issues relevant to all scholars of global sexuality and postcolonial studies, this book is essential reading for advanced students, scholars, and researchers in Translation Studies, gender and sexuality studies, and related areas.

For more information, click here

The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Cognition provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of how translation and cognition relate to each other, discussing the most important issues in the fledgling sub-discipline of Cognitive Translation Studies (CTS), from foundational to applied aspects.

With a strong focus on interdisciplinarity, the handbook surveys concepts and methods in neighbouring disciplines that are concerned with cognition and how they relate to translational activity from a cognitive perspective. Looking at different types of cognitive processes, this volume also ventures into emergent areas such as neuroscience, artificial intelligence, cognitive ergonomics and human–computer interaction.

With an editors’ introduction and 30 chapters authored by leading scholars in the field of Cognitive Translation Studies, this handbook is the essential reference and resource for students and researchers of translation and cognition and will also be of interest to those working in bilingualism, second-language acquisition and related areas.

For more information, click here

The Readers of Multiperspectives in Analysis and corpus design will find nine selected peer reviewed and original contributions which deal with key aspects in recent trends in corpus linguistics: the developments in corpus design, compilation procedures and annotation, and the different analytical perspectives in which corpus techniques have become a core empirical methodology, either in isolation, or combined with other approaches that help reinforce arguments. It will be found that, in most of the articles, the authors themselves have compiled their own study corpus. Consequently, as it is customary in Corpus Linguistics research, a justification of the compilation procedure (e.g. sampling parameters or representativeness) is part and parcel of the discussion. The research areas to which corpus linguistics has been successfully applied in this volume include historical linguistics, linguistic variation, discourse analysis, computational linguistics and translation.

For more information, click here

This non-thematic issue has been prepared in the unprecedented times of COVID-19 pandemic which has affected the academia all around the world and made us move to distance teaching, assessment and research. I wish to thank our contributors for high-quality work and our JoSTras team for their dedication and unfailing support despite adverse circumstances.

We have received as many as 47 submissions for the July 2020 issue of JoSTrans and, after a rigorous peer review process, we selected nine papers for publication. They were grouped into three thematic sections spanning various subfields of Translation and Interpreting Studies: (1) Spotlight on research methods; (2) Interpreting and sight translation, and (3) Technologies and accessibility.

It is particularly pleasing to see a growing number of contributions which explore methodological aspects of research into specialised translation. The methodological section comprises three papers: by Chuan Yu on a researcher’s identities in digital ethnography, by Erik Angelone on screen recording as a diagnostic protocol to improve consistency in process-oriented assessment, and by Feng Pan, Kyung Hye Kim and Tao Li on a combination of parallel corpus methods with critical discourse analysis to investigate political translation.

The interpreting section features Randi Havnen’s paper on how a change of mode in sight translation affects meaning-making, Sijia Chen’s study into the impact of directionality on consecutive interpreting, and Xiangyu Wang and Xiangdong Li’s survey of Chinese job ads for in-house interpreters.

The last section focuses, not surprisingly, on our popular topic of technologies and accessibility. Rudy Loock applies corpus methods to identify machine-translationese to empower novice translators, Irene Tor-Carroggio carries out a reception study on audio description in China while Estella Oncins and Pilar Orero present an integrated approach to accessibility services.

Last but not least, we have nine book reviews and an interview with Carol Robertson on the early days of subtitling at the BBC, conducted by Lindsay Bywood.

For more information, click here

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