Wednesday, 11 June 2014 18:13

Panel 03: Shakespeare’s ‘Great Feast of Languages’: Contemporary Issues in Shakespeare Translation

Shakespeare's 'Great Feast of Languages': Contemporary Issues in Shakespeare Translation
Daniel Gallimore, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Nely Keinanen, University of Helsinki, Finland

Shakespeare remains the preeminent translated playwright around the world, whose apparently unstoppable globalization and localization in traditional and non-traditional formats seem essential to the processes of intercultural communication that underscore translation. This panel will discuss the typical range of problems and opportunities arising from both the original texts and the target languages and cultures which combine to make Shakespeare translation the rich field that it is today. In particular, we will attempt to look beyond traditional notions of equivalence and fidelity by applying contemporary approaches such as post-colonialism and recognizing the flexibility of the translator's role in relation to the theatre. The languages covered are French, Japanese, Finnish, Spanish, Chinese, Brazilian, Dutch and Bengali.

For informal enquiries: [gallimoreATkwanseiDOTacDOTjp]

gallimore photo

Daniel Gallimore has been professor of English at Kwansei Gakuin University, near Osaka, since 2011. At Kwansei Gakuin, he teaches a postgraduate course on Shakespeare translation, and previously taught at Japan Women's University, Tokyo, between 2003 and 2011. He was awarded his doctorate from the University of Oxford in 2002 for a thesis on Japanese translations of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, and has published widely in the field of Shakespeare translation and reception.

keinanen photo1Nely Keinänen teaches English Literature and Translation at the University of Helsinki, Finland. She has recently been studying translations of Shakespeare into Finnish, and also translates modern Finnish drama into English.





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INTRODUCTION: Daniel Gallimore, 'Overview of Current State of Shakespeare Translation in Theoretical Context'



PART ONE: Literary and linguistic nexus



Title: Matsuoka's Four-Letter Words: Expressing the Inexpressible in Contemporary Japanese Shakespeare Translation

Speaker: Daniel Gallimore, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan

Abstract: Japan has a long history of Shakespeare translation stretching back to the 1880s. Shakespeare translation played a central role in the development of modern Japanese drama in the early 20th century, and since all the dominant translators have been academics (and in some cases directors as well), this role has been defined as authoritative; Shakespeare production in Japan still depends on the translator-teacher's ability to understand Shakespeare's language, but as production standards have risen and Shakespeare's cultural capital grown, there have of course been numerous moments when the focus of authority has shifted perceptibly to the other elements of performance in the semiotic, holistic and socio-cultural paradigms of stage translation. Of course, all Shakespeare translation is by its nature theatrical, but what is meant by this shift is a change from a style of performance that seems to depend on the translated text to one in which the translation looks quite overtly to performance for answers to the questions it itself poses. Perhaps more than any other field of translation, drama translators negotiate a hazardous path between their textual facility and their ignorance of external conditions (in other words, stage performance). Although in fact highly knowledgeable of the theatre, it is this acceptance of the translator's limitations that strikes me first about the work of Matsuoka Kazuko, the leading Shakespeare translator in Japan today and the first woman to have attempted to translate Shakespeare's works into Japanese (having completed thirty to date); Matsuoka has consistently regarded her translations as 'discoveries' that have been subject to considerable change in rehearsal and production, and through which her appreciation of Shakespeare has evolved. My paper will draw on Matsuoka's translations in an attempt to substantiate the paradigmatic shift from both the textual and performative viewpoints. My first task will be to conduct an analysis of Matsuoka's use of yoji jukugo (four-character idiomatic phrases) in her published translation of Hamlet (Chikuma Shobō, 2011), and my second to make a detailed analysis of how these idioms are interpreted in a recent production of Matsuoka's translation directed by Ninagawa Yukio (Hori Pro, 2012). The interest of these idioms as points of reference is that they seldom serve as literal renditions of the source, instead conveying a range of cultural associations that may – depending on context – respond creatively to the rhetoric of Shakespeare's texts. Of course, they are sometimes merely semantic in function, and should be considered alongside the numerous affective expressions (e.g. onomatopoeia) characteristic of modern Japanese. One conclusion may well be is that it is the language itself that forces the translator to breach the gap between text and performance. I will also survey a group of native informants for their responses to Matsuoka's use of yoji jukugo, and so build on my extant research into Matsuoka Kazuko and her theatre as a means of understanding the linguistic and stylistic potential of Shakespeare translation in contemporary Japan.

Bionote: Daniel Gallimore has been professor of English at Kwansei Gakuin University, near Osaka, since 2011. At Kwansei Gakuin, he teaches a postgraduate course on Shakespeare translation, and previously taught at Japan Women's University, Tokyo, between 2003 and 2011. He was awarded his doctorate from the University of Oxford in 2002 for a thesis on Japanese translations of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, and has published widely in the field of Shakespeare translation and reception.


Title: Translating Shakespeare's Great Feast of Language: A Case Study of Two Finnish Hamlets

Speaker: Nely Keinänen, University of Helsinki, Finland

Abstract: This paper develops my previous study of translations of Hamlet into Finnish. In a previous essay I examined the political, cultural and literary significance of the first translation, done by Paavo Cajander in 1879. At the time, Finnish as a literary language was very young, and Cajander needed to invent words and expressions, and chose to develop a verse form approximating iambic pentameter. His efforts were highly appreciated in his time, with reviewers rejoicing that Finland was now finally joining European civilization as represented by Shakespeare.

In this paper, I shift focus to more aesthetic and literary concerns, examining two recent Hamlet translations, both considered to be exceptionally poetic, by Eeva-Liisa Manner (1981) and Matti Rossi (2013). Manner's translation was initially commissioned by the Tampere Theater, and was later published, while Rossi's was commissioned by WSOY, a leading Finnish publishing company as the final play in its complete works series. Both Rossi and Manner are considered preeminent translators for the stage, and especially Rossi is known as a translator of Shakespeare.

Both Manner and Rossi are also accomplished poets, and their Hamlet translations are dynamic and eminently speakable, displaying superb command of rhythm and verse, effective use of sound devices, and creative solutions to translating Shakespeare's imagery. In other respects, however, the two translations are different: Manner's text is lean and vigorous, full of verbs, and somehow angrier, while Rossi's text is fuller, more lyrical, luxuriating in the abundance of Shakespeare's feast of language.

In bringing these two texts together, I seek not to claim that one is better than the other, but rather to use them to examine the subjective criteria by which 'Shakespeare' translations are assessed in modern Finland, what qualities are claimed to be valued, and what qualities seem actually to be valued if these differ. As material, I will use the reception of these two texts in the Finnish press, as well as surveys of native informants (both theater professionals and not). In addition, I am curious whether there are differences in the features deemed vital for texts written to be read or performed. While these results will not be immediately applicable to translators and theater practitioners in other languages and cultures, I hope that they will nevertheless shed light on ways that aesthetic and stylistic criteria are discussed and evaluated.

Bionote: Nely Keinänen teaches English Literature and Translation at the University of Helsinki, Finland. She has recently been studying translations of Shakespeare into Finnish, and also translates modern Finnish drama into English.

PART TWO: Cultural considerations


Title: Old Debts and New Ways – Or Not: The Forking Paths of Shakespeare Translation into Spanish Today

Speaker: Alfredo Michel Modenessi, National Autonomous University of Mexico

Abstract: Ten years ago, making a case against the pointless habit of using (mock) Iberian Spanish to translate Shakespeare in Latin America, I wrote that 'translations of Shakespeare are rarely commissioned, and publishers or directors seldom seek academic advice. Due to budget constraints, honest ignorance or blind trust, most productions rely on translations made in Spain, adapted by directors, actors, or, rarely, playwrights'. Have things changed? Consider:

1. In 1999, the collection 'Shakespeare by Writers' started to commission what would become the first 'Complete Works' printed in Latin America. In 2010, Losada of Argentina completed its own series, combining previous versions with work made to order.

2. Shortly after 2004, I started to steadily receive commissions for stage-productions of Early Modern drama; among them: Arden of Faversham (2005), Marlowe's Edward II (2006), and Shakespeare's The Comedy of Errors (2007), Othello (2008), The Tempest (2011), Henry IV, Part 1 (2012, for the 'Globe to Globe, 37/37' festival), Julius Caesar (2013), and Richard III (2014). All involved close collaboration with directors, casts and crews. More importantly, all were made with Mexican norms, and all were successful.

3. By 2008, after twenty-five published texts, the head and heretofore sole translator of the only Spanish complete collection in over fifty years required contributions, first by a Catalonian translator, and then, in 2010, by me, a Mexican. With the release of its third volume ('Histories') in March 2015, the 1920s canon that stemmed from Spain and was traditionally used everywhere in the Spanish-speaking world will be fully replaced. Very importantly, all three translators employed Iberian norms.

4. Of my four translations for this collection, two, The Comedy of Errors and Love's Labour's Lost, I had already translated for the Mexican stages in radically different ways. I have, thus, rendered Shakespeare for both page and stage, into both the Mexican and the Iberian varieties of Spanish, and some plays even twice, in deeply contrasting ways.

Yet, have things changed?

This paper seeks to provide fundamental, first-hand, materials leading to possible answers. Using specific examples to compare and contrast cases from the aforementioned collections, I will discuss and illustrate how, and maybe why, Shakespeare has been more than ever translated into Spanish in recent times, and consequently assess whether the historic scenario of vertically-biased relations between Spain and its former colonies has substantially changed – for better or worse. In the end, the basic questions are if, where, and how, today, the practice of Shakespeare translation into Spanish features creative approaches and solutions effectively contributing to making Shakespeare significant in and for a contemporary context – especially a Latin American one.

Bionote: Alfredo Michel Modenessi is Professor of English and Translation Studies at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, and is a stage translator and dramaturge. He has translated and adapted over forty plays, including Othello, Love's Labour's Lost, Julius Caesar, and Henry IV, Part 1 (for the 'Globe to Globe' festival in 2012). He is on the board of The Shakespearean International Yearbook, MIT's 'Global Shakespeares' website, and the University of Barcelona's 1611: A Journal of Translation Studies. He is currently preparing a book on the presence of Shakespeare in Mexican cinema after a sabbatical year at the Shakespeare Institute in Stratford-upon-Avon.


Title: Translatability of the Religious Dimension in Chinese Translations of The Merchant of Venice

Speaker: Jenny Wong, Hang Seng Management College, Hong Kong

Abstract: Political and religious issues within a drama are often the subject of manipulation and re-writing in order to conform to the predominant ideology and socio-cultural conditions. In China, from the late Qing period through to the contemporary Communist era, Christian references in Shakespearean works are often marginalized, if not lost, at the receiving end. In this paper I will attempt to demonstrate that, while translation theorists under the current 'sociological turn' view social factors as principal in determining translation activities and strategies, case studies of theatre translations of The Merchant of Venice in the Greater China reveal a critical interaction between the translator's or dramatist's theology and religious values and the socio-cultural milieu to create unique theatrical productions. Often, as one can see from my case studies, it is the religious values of the translating agents that become central to determining the translation product, rather than social factors. This paper further argues that the translatability of religious discourse should be understood in a broader sense according to the seven dimensions of religion proposed by Ninian Smart, rather than merely focusing on untranslatability as a result of semantic and linguistic differences.

Methodologically, I will first give an historical overview of the translation of religious discourse in The Merchant since the first introduction of Shakespeare in China in the early 20th century. This analysis will be followed by case studies of The Merchant using discourse analysis and a causal model of translation studies proposed by Andrew Chesterman. Following this model, sociological, behavioural and cognitive conditions that give rise to the translation agents' interpretation and translation of religious discourse will be examined. Since this sociological-oriented model assumes the overarching role of social factors in determining translatability, a phenomenological approach will be used to illustrate the interaction between the social factors and individual theology in arriving at a theatre translation. This is achieved by investigating the life world, i.e. the world behind the text of the translating agents. Interviews are conducted with directors and translators of each play to flesh out the situational translation process as well as their hermeneutic process and theological position. In the final analysis, the problems of the translatability of Shakespeare's religious language will be studied based on the expanded notion of religious language drawing on Ninian Smart's model of seven dimensions of religion. Questions of translatability across different time periods and cultures will be discussed. Thus it has been argued that the translatability of religious discourse should be understood in a broader sense according to the seven dimensions proposed by Ninian Smart, rather than merely focusing on untranslatability as a result of semantic and linguistic differences.

Bionote: Jenny Wong was Assistant Professor at BNU-HKBU United International College between 2008 and 2012 prior to which she was teaching media translation and advanced commercial translation at other universities. Her research interests lie in the study of Bible and English literature which grew out of her MA degree in Translating and Interpreting (Newcastle) and PhD in Literature and Theology (Glasgow). She is the founder of SELBL, a non-profit organisation based in Hong Kong that promotes the cultural significance of the Bible among international students. She has recently been appointed Lecturer at Hang Seng Management College, Hong Kong.

PART THREE: Performance issues


Title: Cultural Mediation in the House of Molière

Speaker: Stephanie Mercier, University of Poitiers, France

Abstract: The Shakespearian plays performed in France's Comédie Française 2013-2014 season featured Hamlet, A Midsummer Night's Dream and Othello. This is an opportune corpus of study in an attempt to conceptualize the translation/adaptation phenomenon as an act of cultural mediation and question the viability of such a concept when placed within the highly institutional framework of 'The House of Molière', in which historical connotations, conventions for language representation, translation and textual norms are commonly held by both stagers and spectators. The powers and pressures of such a venue, which inevitably surround both the translator and adaptor when making language and scenic choices, are thus to be taken into account in this empirical study of texts and contexts. It will be seen that the resulting stagings most often make the most of, but also sometimes misuse, Shakespeare's 'Great Feast of Languages', to the extent that the feast at times morphs into a textual and theatrical fast. In other words, translation and interpretation, when translation becomes an act of reclaiming and recentering of identity, can at times result in linguistic and cultural alienation – especially when potential multilingualism is subjugated for homebred purposes, complex ideas given little time for gestation so that poetry, in the sense of 're-creation', is doomed to become only a vain and distant hope. Despite the unfortunate occasional nationalistic stereotyping however, the unique challenges that staging Shakespeare for a still often neo-classically minded, politically sensitive, French auditorium imply can also bring out the best in translators and directors – if they are willing to cast doubt on the seemingly unswayable dramatic doxa of le français and integrate the ever-malleable prerequisites of fluidity and inventiveness inherent to Shakespearian theatre into their productions. When this happens, the linguistic characteristics of the informing text and its translation can be combined with, not cut off from its dramatic rendering so that the impulse to adapt, derived from a desire to contrast and superimpose, cuts across time, space and cultures to communicate the significance of specific canonical materials, such as those of Shakespeare, from the source to the target. In this respect, and even if the translation/ adaptation process entails experimental performance and re-writing, it still indicates a basic relationship with an informing source text, albeit one achieved in a difference temporal and generic framework. Hence, my analysis will address, and question, the current body of state-funded Shakespeare stagings in France with regards to the specificities – imitational, improvisational and intercultural – of these three productions recently staged at the Comédie Française and their at once divergent, and yet at times equivalent, approach to the concepts of translation and adaptation of Shakespearian drama.

Bionote: Stephanie Mercier is a French/English bi-national agrégée who teaches at the University of Poitiers. She gave papers about Shakespeare translation, adaptation and performance in France, the U.K. and the U.S.A. in 2014 and she also reviews regularly for L'Oeil du Spectateur, on the Poitiers University website, the Cahiers Élisabéthains (Manchester University Press) and on the University of Warwick/Shakespeare Institute's Reviewing Shakespeare. She has published articles about Shakespeare in the Presses Universitaires de Rennes, in the autumn 2014 Oxford University Press online journal English and she is currently conducting research on the commodification of the body in Shakespeare's theatre.


Title: A Mid-Summer African-Brazilian Night's Dream

Speaker: Elizabeth Ramos, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil

Abstract: Shakespeare's comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream was staged in a prize-winning adaption by the Brazilian group Bando de Teatro Olodum in 2006. The Band was set as a theatre group in 1990 in Salvador, a Brazilian city where people of African ancestry amount to 80% of the population. The group's mission is to fight discrimination and racism in Brazil, maintaining a contemporary stage language and committed to an articulated drama, which incisively addresses ethnic identity issues in its various possibilities as they emerge from a joyful and entertaining stage atmosphere. The cast is today made up of twenty African-Brazilian actors and actresses under the direction of Márcio Meirelles, a well-known name in the Brazilian theatrical scene. In 2006, the Olodum Theatre Band celebrated sixteen years of popular black theatre by staging A Midsummer Night's Dream in a spicy adaptation, which privileges Bahian cultural references such as dance and music, in their different genres and styles, including African rhythms and percussion, but without losing its bond with the original Shakespearean text. The audience were confronted with an amusing story of matches and mismatches between young African-Athenian lovers, who find adventure in the woods controlled and manipulated by fairies. One of the fairies ends up falling in love with a human on the eve of the marriage of the black skinned couple Theseus and Hippolyta, when Bottom and Flute, along with Peter Quince, Starveling, Snout and Snug, who of course acquire typical local names, will perform 'Pyramus and Thisbe'. Powerful body movements agitate light and colorful pieces of cloth, which dangle and stir on stage under light effects to the sound of lively African percussion, giving the audience the impression of characters floating in the air like 'a midsummer night's dream'. Golden ornaments decorate characters' heads, beads, glass pearls adorn necks and breasts, and powerful arms and legs facilitate the vigorous movements of the forest fairies. For, in African performances, music, acting and dancing movements cannot be dissociated from one another. Music implies movement. Meirelles then invites us to expand our Western perspective in order to observe the mix of music with other stage systems. He sets his play on an African-Brazilian stage in a unique adaptation of Shakespeare's comedy that typifies what Barthes called 'a weaving of echoes, citation, references: previous or contemporary cultural languages, which cross the text in a vast stereophony.' Through such a dual process of appropriation and salvage, of interpreting and creating something new, Meirelles shows himself to be a contemporary dramatist, if (as Agemben argues) 'contemporaneity is a singular relationship with present time, to which one adheres, and from which one simultaneously withdraws.'

Bionote: Elizabeth Ramos has a Post-Doctorate degree from the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) and a Master's and Doctorate in Literary and Linguistic Studies from the Universidade Federal da Bahia, where she is Professor in the Department of Germanic Letters. She does research in the field of Shakespearean and Translation Studies (both literary and intersemiotic), mainly concerned with the relationships between literature and cinema. In those fields, she advises Master's and Doctoral students.


Title: Toneelgroep's Roman Tragedies in London: The Intermediality and Interlinearity of Surtitling Shakespeare in English

Speaker: Geraldine Brodie, University College, London

Abstract: In November 2009, Toneelgroep Amsterdam visited the Barbican Theatre, London, with its critically and internationally acclaimed production, Roman Tragedies. A consecutive staging of Shakespeare's three plays, Coriolanus, Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra, the production lasted six hours and was performed in Dutch with English surtitles. In an interview published in the Barbican Theatre programme, the director, Ivo van Hove, insisted, 'we have simply made a new translation'. However, the amalgamation of three plays, the contemporary setting, the male roles played by women and the stage-audience interactivity combined to create a strikingly overt reinterpretation and condensation of Shakespeare's work. In London, the potential controversy of this approach was further reinforced by the English surtitles, negotiating between the Shakespearean text and a back-translation of the performed Dutch script. This paper considers the innovative role played by surtitles in the collaborative act of performing a translated play. The Toneelgroep production, which includes a variety of intermedial modalities such as the simultaneous filmed projection of performance aspects and pre-recorded segments in a televised format, also explores the potential of theatrical intermediality by incorporating surtitles into its digital presentation. Translation is thus situated within the central mise en scène of the production rather than banished to the wings or proscenium arch as is more frequently the case in surtitled plays in the theatre. My paper investigates the effect of this integration of surtitles. Firstly, from the point of view of translation as dramaturgy: how does this positioning of surtitles contribute to the interpretive act of theatrical communication? I will consider the motivations for this exploratory treatment, taking into account technological advances and the increasing internationalisation of productions developed for touring, and argue that, whether intentional or incidental, the intermedial positioning and display of surtitles serves to focus unprecedented attention on the contribution of translation to theatre performance. Secondly, in addition to the positioning of the Toneelgroep surtitles, their textual content, signifying the movement from Shakespeare's language through modern Dutch and back to English, provided a reminder to the London audience, familiar with the original, that translation creates its own trajectories. I will analyse the negotiation of the cultural sensitivities of translation within the text and the performance, examining the function of these surtitles. Walter Benjamin envisaged the construction of translation as an integral element within the creation of a text, insisting in his essay The Task of the Translator that 'all great writings contain their virtual translation between the lines'. My paper asks whether the innovative techniques adopted by Toneelgroep Amsterdam in this Shakespearean production present an opportunity for the consideration of surtitles as interlinear translation, overtly displayed to the audience.

Bionote: Dr Geraldine Brodie convenes the MA in Translation Theory and Practice at University College London. She is the founder and co-convenor of the UCL Translation in History Lecture Series, and a co-editor of the IATIS online journal New Voices in Translation Studies. Her research centres on the collaborative role of the theatre translator in English-language performance, including the intermediality and dramaturgy of surtitles. In addition to speaking and publishing on these topics, she has devised the UCL Theatre Translation Forum, bringing together academics and theatre practitioners in a series of interdisciplinary examinations of dramatic genres.

PART THREE: Translation and adaptation


Title: Bombarding the Headquarters: Academic Tradaptations of Shakespeare in Twenty-First Century Bengal

Speaker: Sarbani Chaudhury, University of Kalyani, India

Abstract: For the metropolitan English students and academics of India, Shakespeare has long been a curious blend of the venerable and the malleable but the Bard still means serious business in the suburbia with only occasional exceptions to the rule. One such exception has been in place since 2008 during Radix, the annual reunion of the Department of English, University of Kalyani, where the insidious seepage of high voltage Indi-pop, Bollywood and Hollywood dance numbers into the 'culturally admissible' recitals of classical dance, music, and Tagore songs and poems is reflected in the highpoint of the day's festivities – the performance of a raunchy, risqué and impudently abridged version of a Shakespearean play under the able tutelage of a young faculty, Sandip Mandal. This paper proposes to investigate the developing tenor and direction of these translations of A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Merry Wives of Windsor, The Tempest, Twelfth Night and Macbeth, between 2008 and 2012, which cannibalize, digest and regurgitate a diametrically split Shakespeare for local, one-time consumption. Through the complete collectivization of the page-to-stage process – from script writing to the final performance – the Bard's authorial hegemony is severely undermined and the end product becomes the collective property of the Department through collaborative enterprise at every level. The consistent deployment of confrontational bilingualism and theatricality fragments the act of 'seamless transmission,' challenging Pratt's 'contact zone' proposition by upholding rather than dissolving the binary between the source and the target text. Supposedly 'high brow' Shakespearean scenes remain unaltered while the populous 'low' scenes celebrate the 21st century Bengali suburban milieu, language and setting with a profusion of 'Hinglish' and 'Benglish' slang, innuendos and puns, and allusions to popular Bollywood and Hollywood films. The proportional relation between the 'original' and the 'indigenised' is increasingly skewed in favour of the latter till, in Macbeth: A Comedy, the Shakespearean passages (e.g., soliloquies) take on the parenthetical function of 'annotating' the translation. The politics of polarity also informs the masculinist project of forcibly occupying the 'original' where aggressive translation combined with adaptation (hence, tradaptation) effectively feminises Shakespeare by producing a new text with vestiges of both parents but dominant patrilineal traits. The discontinuous tradaptation effected through such bilingual and theatrical juxtaposition of original scenes and passages with indigenised counterparts is further assisted by definitive periodization, which entails invoking the Elizabethan-Jacobean era as closely as possible in the 'original' scenes' while locating the 'indigenised' portions in a contemporary Bengali setting. Assisted by video clips and stills, my presentation proposes to establish that together, the attributes mentioned above, move beyond the postcolonial desire to re-write/right the 'asymmetrical relations of power' (Tejaswini Niranjana) endemic to much of colonial/ postcolonial translations by rejecting the in-betweenness of Homi Bhabha's 'Third Space' in favour of bombarding the headquarter and reclaiming the centre by reconfiguring Shakespeare as a supplementary component of a hybrid, thoroughly indigenised product.

Bionote: M.Phil. on 'Shakespeare's Masterless Men'. Ph.D. on 'Subversive Voices in Tudor Literature'. Awards-Grants: All-Round Best Graduate Award, Jadavpur University, 1977; British Council Grant for Ph. D. research; Folger Shakespeare Library Fellowship. Publications: Shakespeare and the Discourse of Protest (1994); Ed. Re-presenting Shakespeare: Interpretations and Translations, Vols. 1 & 2 (2002); Ed. Undergraduate Syllabus: Perspectives and Possibilities (2002); Ed. Pearson Longman The Tempest (2009). Refereed publications: 34. Contributor, World Shakespeare Bibliography Online published by Shakespeare Quarterly and Johns Hopkins University Press; Book review editor, Multicultural Shakespeare. Current Project: Shakespeare Criticism in Bengal. Areas of interest: Theatre, Women's issues, Shakespeare in Bengal.

WRAP-UP SECTION: led by Nely Keinänen


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