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Translation as an act and event: Exploring the interface
Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland
Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Stockholm University, Sweden

Until relatively recently, there has been an invisible line in translation studies between cognitive research (e.g., mental processes, attitudes) and sociological research (status, institutions). This panel focuses on how the translation 'act' is affected by the translation 'event' (cf. Toury 2012). The translation act can be considered what happens in the human brain, the cognitive processes as reflected in observable practices, which has been the focus of much of the translation process research done in the past 20 years. The translation event is seen to involve not only the individual translators and interpreters, but also the agents and organizations that impinge on their situated activities.

For informal enquiries: [ehreATzhawDOTch]

Ehrensberger-Dow EnglundDimitrova small

Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow has a PhD in experimental linguistics from the University of Alberta, Canada. She is Professor of Translation Studies at the Institute of Translation and Interpreting, Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), Switzerland. Her research interests include translation processes, translation in the news, conceptual transfer, and cognitive ergonomics. She is currently principal investigator of the Cognitive and Physical Ergonomics of Translation research project, a follow-up of the Capturing Translation Processes project.

Birgitta Englund Dimitrova has a PhD in Slavic Linguistics and is Professor Emerita of Translation Studies at Stockholm University, Sweden. Her main research interests are in cognition, bilingualism and translation, as evidenced by her monograph Expertise and Explicitation in the Translation Process (Benjamins, 2005). Recently, she coedited two process-oriented special issues of Translation and Interpreting Studies. She has also published on the interaction in interpreter-mediated encounters and on the translation of dialect in fiction.

 

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SESSION PLAN

PANEL INTRODUCTION (10 minutes): Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Birgitta Englund Dimitrova

SESSION 1: Translation as an Act and Event

PAPER 1 (20 minutes)

Title: Translation in the medical context: specificities of an interdisciplinary and dynamic system

Speaker: Isabel Garcia-Izquierdo, Universitat Jaume I

PAPER 2 (20 minutes)

Title: Investigating the influence of editors by a corpus analysis of grammatical metaphor in published and draft translations

Speaker: Mario Bisiada, University of Kent

PAPER 3 (20 minutes)

Title: Translation without the originals: Chinese (auto-)biographical truth across into English

Speaker: Pei Meng, Shanghai University of International Business and Economics

PAPER 4 (20 minutes)

Title: From loner to team player: studying the translator's cognitive processes in a changing professional landscape

Speaker: Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Stockholm University

SESSION 1 DISCUSSION (40 minutes)

SESSION 2: Exploring the interface

PAPER 5 (20 minutes)

Title: Acts, events and the coherence of the conceptual apparatus of cognitive approaches

Speaker: Ricardo Muñoz Martín, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

PAPER 6 (20 minutes)

Title: The situated act of translation: Incorporating feedback loops into the system

Speaker: Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Gary Massey, Zurich University of Applied Sciences

PAPER 7 (20 minutes)

Title: Knowledge as enacted capability in the translation project management workplace Speaker: Maeve Olohan, University of Manchester

SESSION 2 DISCUSSION (30 minutes)

PANEL WRAP-UP (20 minutes): Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Birgitta Englund Dimitrova

PAPER TITLES, ABSTRACTS AND BIONOTES

PAPER 1

Title: Translation in the medical context: specificities of an interdisciplinary and dynamic system

Speaker: Isabel Garcia-Izquierdo, Universitat Jaume I

Abstract:

Written medical translation presents some characteristics that make it particularly complex. Firstly, it is an interdisciplinary field, since health professionals (doctors and nurses), experts in translation and languages, and, in the current situation, experts in communication technology are all involved in the medical translation/communication process. Secondly, it takes place in a dynamic context, since it has to respond to social needs (Montalt & García-Izquierdo, forthcoming), especially concerning communication, which can be asymmetrical (expert-to-layman communication), interlinguistic and intercultural. Thus, written medical communication is situated somewhere on a continuum that ranges from popularisation (genres written by experts and addressed to laymen, which sometimes need intergeneric - intra and interlinguistic - translations) to the highest specialisation (expert-to-expert communication; Cabré, 2004), in which equifunctional or equigeneric translation prevails (García-Izquierdo & Montalt, 2014). To deal with the complexity of this interdisciplinary, interlinguistic and multi-oriented (layman and experts) context, the researcher needs to use qualitative (interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, etc.) and quantitative (corpora, expert knowledge management systems, etc.) methods, involving all participants in the communicative process, which enable him/her to triangulate results from different sources. This paper presents the design and first results of the qualitative and quantitative research carried out by the Gentt group (Textual Genres for Translation, http://www.gentt.uji.es) in the context of a research project funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (2013-2015). The practical aim of the research can be understood in terms of both the translation act and the translation event, because it is twofold: i) With regard to the event, to improve written communication aimed at national and foreign patients in the Spanish context (especially hospitals) and thus to improve social interaction and ii) with regard to the act, to provide medical translators (English-Spanish) with useful resources by means of an expert documentation management system (García-Izquierdo & Borja, 2014) that includes a list of patient information genres in English and Spanish; a corpus of real documents; a list of documentary resources; International, European, Spanish, UK and USA legislation related to these genres; and monolingual and bilingual glossaries. It is expected that all these resources will enable translators to improve production of the genres involved in the new context

Bionote: Isabel García-Izquierdo is a professor in Applied Linguistics for Translation in the Department of Translation and Communication at the Universitat Jaume I, in Castellón (Spain). From 2000 onwards, she has been the director of the research group GENTT (Géneros textuales para la traducción, www.gentt.uji.es), which focuses on the multilingual analysis of textual genres in the framework of specialised communication applied to translation. Isabel García-Izquierdo has published several books as well as national and international articles related to her research. She is the President of AIETI (Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación).

PAPER 2

Title: Investigating the influence of editors by a corpus analysis of grammatical metaphor in published and draft translations

Speaker: Mario Bisiada, University of Kent

Abstract:

In the study of translated language, we often focus on the final text and forget the linguistic influences that are exerted on it in the remainder of the translation workflow, especially extratextual factors such as editorial policies. Phenomena we observe in translated language are thus usually attributed to the translator, while few scholars (cf. Utka 2004; Munday 2012: 110ff; Bisiada 2014) have discussed contrasts between published and draft translations to elicit changes made to the text during editing. This paper therefore argues for a greater awareness of the different 'phases of translation' (Utka 2004: 196) in corpus-based analyses of the translation event.

The importance of such an awareness is demonstrated by a case study of grammatical metaphor, where a meaning 'typically realised by one grammatical means comes to be realised by another' (Halliday & Martin 1993: 141), in this case verbal and nominal, in translations from English to German. German is generally considered to prefer a nominal style, which achieves a higher information density than a verbal style does (Nord 1997: 60; Fabricius-Hansen 1999: 203; Schäffner & Wiesemann 2001: 94). In spite of this, several studies have observed that translations to German often seem to turn source text (ST) nominal constructions into verbal ones, which has been taken as evidence for explicitation (Konsalova 2007) or shining through of the source language 'as many verbal structures are translated literally' (Hansen-Schirra 2011: 147).

The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of editors on translated language by testing the claim that German translators tend to verbalise English nominal structures. A traditional translation corpus of English management articles that appeared in the Harvard Business Review between 2006 and 2011 and their German translations (published in the Harvard Business Manager) will be complemented by a corpus of draft translations of those articles. Those translations were sent to the publisher by the translation company and thus represent translated language before it underwent the editing process. The three subcorpora in the 316,000 word corpus were sentence-aligned so that the ST constructions and both draft and published translations could be compared. German nominals were extracted, for instance, by searching for forms ending with the suffix '-ung'.

The results show that translators either maintain the nominal style of the ST, or indeed nominalise verbal ST constructions, as the communicative conventions of German would stipulate. Crucially, we observe that it is editors who then change these constructions to verbal ones, thus verbalising nominal structures or restoring the verbal style of the ST. This suggests that some phenomena in translated language that are discussed as 'translators' style' may well have to be attributed to editors, leading to the question of whether methodologies that simply draw on the final translation product are appropriate to analyse translator's decision-making. Demonstrating the influence of the editing process on translated texts underlines the growing importance of the inclusion of all phases of the workflow of commercial translation in the analysis of translated language as a first step towards a process-based view of translation.

Bionote: Mario Bisiada holds a PhD in Translation and Intercultural Studies from the University of Manchester, in which he conducted a diachronic corpus study of whether language contact with English in translation can lead to language change in German. He has also published on sentence splitting in English-German translation, arguing that it occurs in translation irrespective of the information density of the target language. Most recently, he worked as an Associate Lecturer in German linguistics at the University of Kent.

PAPER 3

Title: Translation without the originals: Chinese (auto-)biographical truth across into English

Speaker: Pei Meng, Shanghai University of International Business and Economics

Abstract:

This paper examines the cultural, social and ideological factors that have mediated the selection, translation and edition of three Chinese (auto-)biographies into English for British audiences. The three Chinese autobiographies, namely Red Dust by Ma Jian, Daughter of the River by Hong Ying and Good Women of China by Xin Ran, offer accounts of individuals' adversities under the 'Communist China' primarily revolving around the Chinese Cultural Revolution. A remarkable feature about these three works is that the originals had been translated and published, and then became best sellers in the UK, well before the Chinese originals came out in Chinese-speaking countries. To explore 'the system that accounts for what is rather than what ought to be' (Inghilleri 2005: 142), this research, seeing translation as a socially discursive activity, moves away from the textual analysis of the end product towards an examination of the social, political and cultural contexts in which translation acts are constituted (Wolf, 2006). It reports on findings from a qualitative piece of research on the social, interpersonal and institutional dynamics of the translation of Chinese (auto-)biographies and their impacts on the process and outcome of translation. Based on semi-structured interviews with the literary agent, editors, translator and authors who were involved in the various stages of translations, this paper focuses on the mediating position of social agents and their interactive relationships within institutional contexts that shape the final translated output for the British book market. In this research, Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital and habitus, which are essentially concerned with explaining the relationship between individual activity and objective structure (Inghilleri 2003), are employed to analyse the structure of the various fields where translation activity occurs. The translation of Chinese (auto-)biographies is viewed as a network of individual activities within institutionalised fields – literary and publishing fields – that are analysed to examine the logic internal to the field, and the stakes and interests that drive the translation activity and its outcome and product within the UK book market. The habitus of individuals, literary agent and publishers in particular is also analysed in light of the way the participants interact, negotiate and subscribe to rules, conventions and norms, such as the motivation for selecting the unpublished originals for translations, what translation should aim at, how it should be conducted and the way the editing is carried out. My findings suggest that the power relations underpinning the struggles, competitions, negotiations and collaborations within the publishing and literary fields shape the translation production where the social agents involved interact and negotiate to yield the final product for the British book market. The selection process is shown to be a decisive step in the process of translation, which to a great extent shapes the way the Chinese (auto-)biographies have been translated and edited. Translation is therefore conceptualised as operating within the parameters of institutional, cultural and literary conventions that steer the translation activity via complex negotiations embedded in certain power relations that come into play to shape the end-product of translation.

Bionote: Pei Meng works as a lecturer in the School of Foreign Languages, Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, China. She obtained both her MA and PhD degrees in the UK in the field of Translation Studies at the University of Birmingham and the University of Edinburgh, respectively. Her research interests centre on the areas of sociology and culture of translation, translation history and stylistic approach to translation. She teaches courses for both postgraduate and undergraduate students in translation theory, Chinese-English translation, contrastive studies and translation, research methodology as well as stylistics.

PAPER 4

Title: From loner to team player: studying the translator's cognitive processes in a changing professional landscape

Speaker: Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Stockholm University

Abstract:

Research on the translation process has evolved from its beginnings in the 1980ies into a productive paradigm within Translation Studies (Muñoz 2014). Original points of departure were theories and methodologies mainly from psycholinguistics and cognitive psychology, with data elicited mainly from short whole translation tasks performed alone by translators or students, and after some time, with due attention to ecological validity. Conclusions were drawn e.g. on different processes depending upon experience or under various experimental conditions, regarding the execution of the task and its subtasks (reading the source text, drafting the target text, revising while drafting, revising after drafting, etc.), as well as on problems and decision-making. However, in the last decade or so, IT and globalization have profoundly changed the translation profession(s): in the growing translation industry, there is increasing task specialization and cooperation, and translation management, other-revision, TM and MT + post-editing are regular parts of the process. Hence, the design of many process studies, both earlier and more recent, seems to reflect a translation concept that is in many ways outdated: a short source text and a lonely individual, doing the whole task herself. This raises the question of the validity of the findings of such process studies in these new professional contexts. Against a short background on recent translation profession developments, the main body of this presentation builds on two analyses, which are compared and contrasted: 1. a meta-analysis of selected earlier process studies on tasks and subtasks in the translation process; 2. an analysis of approx. 15 hours of interviews with approx. 10 very experienced Swedish translators, regarding their habitual translation process. Guided by questions based on results of earlier process studies, the interviews elucidate differences in approach and processing, depending on the amount of cooperation with other actors in the overall process and task division, but also source text length, text type and on individual process characteristics. The principal question to be answered is: To what extent are findings from earlier process studies, where the cognitive processes of "the loner" were analyzed (translating as an act, cf. Toury 2012, Chesterman 2013), also relevant and valid in contexts characterized by distributed tasks, where the translation process needs to be conceptualized as an event (Toury, Chesterman)?

Bionote: Birgitta Englund Dimitrova has a PhD in Slavic Linguistics and is Professor Emerita of Translation Studies at Stockholm University, Sweden. Her main research interest is in cognition, bilingualism and translation, as evidenced by her monograph Expertise and Explicitation in the Translation Process (John Benjamins, 2005). She has also published on the interaction in interpreter-mediated encounters and on the translation of dialect in fiction. Her current research project, "The translator's individual space", investigates individual characteristics in the process and the target texts of very experienced translators working from more than one source language.

PAPER 5

Title: Acts, events and the coherence of the conceptual apparatus of cognitive approaches

Speaker: Ricardo Muñoz Martín, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

Abstract:

Toury (2012: 67–68) distinguishes a cognitive dimension, or translation act, and a sociological dimension, or translation event, in every instance of translating. Chesterman (2013) adds a third dimension, that of translation practice, to study translation against the larger landscape of historical and cultural evolution. These distinctions seem appropriate when the field is considered as a whole, and sociological approaches are certainly needed for and welcome in a truly comprehensive and multidisciplinary Translation Studies. However, the goals, assumptions and methods of one TS strand are not necessarily compatible with those from another one, sometimes not even within a given framework. For instance, Olohan (2011) has warned about a possible terminological and conceptual clash within the sociology of translation (e.g., Wolf & Fukari 2007), and several researchers (e.g., Ehrensberger-Dow, Muñoz, O'Brien, Risku) have called for updating the cognitive paradigm used as a reference for translation process research. Crucially, nothing prevents the translation process from being studied from perspectives other than cognitive translatology (e.g., computer science, anthropology); there is also nothing in translation events that makes them exclusive territory for sociological approaches. Multidisciplinarity does not entail a division of labor—i.e., a compartmentalization of the object of study. It results from the potential overlap of comprehensive analyses of the full object of study. Cognitive translatology (Muñoz 2010a, 2010b) uses embodied-embedded cognition as a referential framework and, in order to ensure internal coherence, also draws from it and from (cognitive) social psychology to study the interpersonal and cultural aspects of the cognitive processes of translators, interpreters and other agents, such as addressees. When translating is approached as an embodied-embedded activity—and not only as a rational, conscious problem-solving process or a sequence of problem-solving processes—each instance of translating is cognitively situated in a social, historical and cultural milieu. Cognition is enacted by the brain but in a constant interplay with "external" factors. Thus, current cognitive models of translating need to be enlarged to cover translation acts, events, and practices because they are only different aspects of cognitive experiences and processes: the translation act includes the translation event and unfolds along the lines of a given translation practice, and they all are built and represented in the mind of the translator and impact on her performance. This stance will be supported with references to recent works by several researchers but also with empirical data from a set of small-scale studies.

Bionote: Ricardo Muñoz has been a freelance translator since 1987 and was ATA certified for English-Spanish in 1991. Muñoz is the coordinator of the research team "Expertise & Environment in Translation" (PETRA, Spanish acronym), which focuses on the empirical research of the cognitive processes of translators and interpreters. He is also a member of the TREC Network. Muñoz is currently Professor in Translation Studies at the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Brief CV: http://www.mendeley.com/profiles/ricardo-munoz-martin/ Selected publications: https://ulpgc.academia.edu/RicardoMunoz

PAPER 6

Title: The situated act of translation: Incorporating feedback loops into the system

Speaker: Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Gary Massey, Zurich University of Applied Sciences

Abstract:

Professional translation is a cognitive activity that is necessarily situated in a physical setting within an organizational structure. Most translators work within dynamic systems that require various degrees of collaboration with clients, peers, and other colleagues coupled with intensive human-computer interactions. In addition to the usual office equipment and communication systems, the typical setting of professional translation includes language technology tools designed to relieve translators of repetitive tasks and to increase their efficiency. The implicit assumption behind deploying such tools is to have machines do what they do best in order to let humans do what they do best – creative work requiring intense use of cognitive resources. The organization usually determines which tools are appropriate for which tasks, with more, less, or even no input from the ultimate users. Time and economic pressures often preclude the good practice of structured, systematic feedback loops.

On the basis of a large corpus of translation processes recorded at professional translators' workplaces over the past few years as well as translator commentaries, interviews, and survey results, we claim that the increasing segmentation of the translation process and consequent increased number of agents involved in the translation 'event' (cf. Chesterman 2006, 2009) is restricting translators' autonomy and decision-making in the cognitive 'act' of translating (cf. Toury 2012). While engaging in a demanding bilingual cognitive activity, the translators we have observed and interviewed indicate that they are struggling to manage their responsibilities to a range of actors and factors (the source text, target language norms, readership needs, client style guides, and reputation issues) as they deal with the economic and temporal pressures to which they and their organizations are subject (cf. Ehrensberger-Dow & Massey 2013). Findings from our workplace studies suggest that disturbances in the workflow or non-optimal ergonomic conditions can throw this complex system out of balance, increasing translators' mental load (cf. Muñoz 2012) and potentially preventing them from using language technology efficiently or from producing the quality that they are capable of. In addition, the professional translators we have investigated often have little opportunity to receive constructive feedback on their work, actively increase their expertise, or express their needs to language technology developers. We argue that it is not enough to rely on advances in external language resources or on cursory target-text revision processes. Instead, organizations would do well to exploit the expert knowledge of their human translators by incorporating effective feedback loops into every stage of the workflow.

Bionote: Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow is Professor of Translation Studies, teaching on the BA and MA programmes in the ZHAW Institute of Translation and Interpreting. She is principal investigator of three nationally funded research projects, two of which focus on translation workplace processes and the cognitive and physical ergonomics of translation. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Gary Massey is deputy head of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), director of its MA in Applied Linguistics and past head of its undergraduate degree programmes. His research interests include translation processes, translation pedagogy, and information literacy for translators. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

PAPER 7

Title: Knowledge as enacted capability in the translation project management workplace

Speaker: Maeve Olohan, University of Manchester

Abstract:

Emerging from ethnographic research already underway in translation companies in the UK, this paper seeks to understand the mutually constitutive nature of knowledge and practice in the translation project management workplace. Previous areas of analytical focus in this ongoing project have been (i) the dynamic development of trust between project managers, clients and freelance translators and (ii) the challenges faced by small translation companies in the light of recent developments in machine translation technologies. This paper will address a third theme, that of knowledge as enacted capability in the workplace, drawing on data derived principally from participant observation and formal and informal interviewing.

Polanyi's seminal work (1962, 1966) on tacit knowledge, alongside conceptualisations of knowing by Lave (1988) and Giddens (1984), have provided a conceptual basis for workplace scholarship in diverse domains to focus attention on knowledge in practice. These conceptualisations tend to emphasise the mutually constitutive nature of knowledge and practice. For example, for Orlikowski (2002: 251), knowledge is more appropriately thought of as 'knowing' or 'knowing how'; thus, 'knowledge in practice' may be defined as "a situated knowing constituted by a person acting in a particular setting and engaging aspects of the self, the body, and the physical and social worlds" (ibid.: 252). In this sense, knowing is an "enacted capability" which is modified and reconstituted as practices change, and as people move across contexts and through time (ibid.: 256).

Workplace studies in domains other than translation (e.g. Tutt et al. 2013) have addressed the role that tacit knowledge plays in communication and work practices, with a particular focus on lateral communication between fellow workers in an established team, and on the dynamic development of practices in particular situations. Likewise, this paper will explore how knowing in practice is constituted by the activities of translation project managers in their specific workplace situations, i.e. how knowledge is learnt, communicated and modified through practice and through interactions with other project managers, other people in the translation production network and material entities, including technologies. The paper will conclude by considering the complex relationship between formal education in translation and the enacted capabilities of translation project managers in the workplace.

Bionote: Maeve Olohan is senior lecturer in translation studies and co-director of the Centre for Translation and Intercultural Studies, University of Manchester, UK. Her current research concerns the sociology of professional translation practices, past and present. She is author of Scientific and Technical Translation (forthcoming 2015) and Introducing Corpora in Translation Studies (2004), editor of Intercultural Faultlines: Research Models in Translation Studies I (2000) and co-editor of Text and Context: Essays on Translation and Interpreting in Honour of Ian Mason (20110) and a special issue of The Translator (2011) on the translation of science.

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 18:43

New Directions in Cognitive and Empirical Translation Research
Riitta Jääskeläinen, University of Eastern Finland
Séverine Hubscher-Davidson, Aston University, Birmingham
Isabel Lacruz, Kent State University, Ohio, USA

Cognitive research in translation and interpreting has reached a critical threshold of maturity that is triggering rapid expansion along several innovative paths. Some of these might be grouped under three areas which have recently grown in popularity: (1) innovative methodologies, (2) translation expertise, and (3) translation utility. This panel, which includes contributions that investigate new directions in these areas, is intended as a platform to explore and exchange views on the future development of cognitive and empirical translation research.

Innovative methodologies: One key driver of expansion in the field is the development and use of diverse empirical and experimental methodologies, which are often borrowed or adapted from other disciplines. New approaches, which increasingly involve multiple data sources, sometimes both qualitative and quantitative, are beginning to provide very rich information on all aspects of translation as a cognitive activity, including the roles of affect and metacognition. Large scale standardization of research instruments including questionnaires and on-line tools for extraction and manipulation of shared data will enable researchers to move beyond the limitations of case studies to carry out research at scale that allows for substantial generalization.

Translation expertise: More effective methodologies in cognitively oriented translation research are yielding deeper understanding of the nature and acquisition of translation competence and the development of translation expertise. This new knowledge will help guide the training of future translators as they develop into fully-fledged professionals. It will also positively impact the work of translators as they strive to effectively meet workplace needs and expectations.

Translation utility: Prior research has often focused on evaluating translations in terms of how accurately they transfer information between languages, according to semantic, syntactic, stylistic, cultural, and other similar standards. Increasingly, however, the basis of evaluation is moving toward judgment of utility – in other words, measuring how effortful it is for end-users to use a translation and how well it meets their needs. This change in focus is partly driven by increased need for post-editing of machine translations and the desirability of tuning machine translation output to minimize effort for post-editors rather than maximize formal accuracy. For this it is especially important to understand and measure the nature of cognitive effort in various aspects of the translation process, a theme that is explored by several contributors to this panel.

For informal enquiries: [riittaDOTjaaskelainenATuefDOTfi]

IATIS riitta j

Riitta Jääskeläinen, (University of Eastern Finland) is Professor of English (translation and interpreting). Her teaching includes practical translation as well as research-related courses and thesis supervision. Her research interests in the area of translation process research include methodology and translators' expertise. She has published overview articles on think-aloud (Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, Benjamins Handbook of Translation Studies, vol. 1), translation process research (Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies) and translation psychology (Benjamins Handbook of Translation Studies, vol. 3).





Hubscher-DavidsonSéverine Hubscher-Davidson (Kent State University) is Assistant Professor of Translation Studies. She teaches doctoral courses on empirical research methods for translation, and translation and cognition, as well as master level translation practice courses. Lacruz' current research interests include investigation of the mental processes involved in translation and post-editing. She has published theoretical and empirical articles on cognitive aspects of translation and post-editing.




La cruz Isabel Lacruz (Aston University, Birmingham) is a Lecturer in Translation Studies. She teaches both translation theory and practice, and her research interests are in the areas of translation process research, translators' personalities and emotional intelligence, as well as individual differences more generally. She has published articles mainly on psychological aspects of the translation process, and is currently working on a book on the topic of emotionality in translation.

 

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Each paper is allocated with a 20 minutes time slot + 10 minutes discussion.

Discussion time at the end of each paper

Introduction: Riitta Jääskeläinen (10 minutes)

SESSION 1: Translation expertise/Innovative methodologies

Chair: Isabel Lacruz

PAPER 1:

Title: Acquisition of translation competence: principal results of PACTE's experimental research

Speaker: Grupo PACTE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

PAPER 2:

Title: Tolerance for Ambiguity and the Translation Profession: A New Direction for Empirical Research in Translation

Speaker: Séverine Hubscher-Davidson, Aston University

PAPER 3:

Title: Investigating emotional aspects of the translation process: an interdisciplinary methodological framework

Speaker: Caroline Lehr, University of Geneva

PAPER 4:

Title: The role of expertise in emotion regulation: Exploring the effect of expertise on translation performance under emotional stir

Speakers: Ana Mª Rojo López and Marina Ramos Caro, University of Murcia

PAPER 5:

Title: The mind behind - Attributive metacognition in translation and its effect on the translator

Speaker: Annegret Sturm, University of Geneva

PAPER 6:

Title: Translation process differences between literary and technical translators

Speakers: Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund, University of Copenhagen, and Barbara Dragsted, Copenhagen Business School

SESSION 2: Translation utility

Chair: Séverine Hubscher-Davidson

PAPER 7:

Title: How editors read: An eye-tracking study of the effects of editorial experience and task instruction on reading behavior

Speaker: Melanie Ann Law, North-West University

PAPER 8:

Title: Studying the dynamics of term creation in European equally authentic texts in 24 official language versions

Speaker: Rita Temmerman, VrijeUniversiteit Brussel

PAPER 9:

Title: Cognitive Effort in Machine Translation Post-Editing: A Mixed-Method Approach

Speaker: Lucas Nunes Vieira, Newcastle University

PAPER 10:

Title: Cognitive effort in human translation and post-editing: an analysis of pupil dilation and fixation duration on metaphors

Speaker: Arlene Koglin, Federal University of Minas Gerais

PAPER 11:

Title: Source text features and their relationship to cognitive demand and cognitive effort in post-editing

Speaker: Isabel Lacruz, Kent State University

Wrap-up session (10 minutes): Riitta Jääskeläinen

PAPER TITLES, ABSTRACTS AND BIONOTES

PAPER 1:

Title: Acquisition of translation competence: Principal results of PACTE's experimental research

Speaker: Grupo PACTE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Abstract:

Having completed its experimental research into Translation Competence (TC) in written translation, PACTE group has now completed its research into the Acquisition of Translation Competence (ATC). Data was collected from a total of 130 students in November 2011. The same sub-competences, variables and their indicators, and instruments used in the TC study were used to research ATC. The dependent variables were the same as those in the TC experiment, namely, Knowledge of Translation; Translation Project; Identification and Solution of Translation Problems; Decision-making; Efficacy of the Translation Process; and Use of Instrumental Resources. However, whilst the independent variable in the TC experiment was defined as the degree of translation expertise in terms of years of experience translating and the percentage of income from translation, in the ATC experiment it was defined as years of translator training (first, second, third, fourth year, and recently graduated students). The experimental universe was that of translator trainees. The sample population was taken from undergraduate (years 1-4) and recently graduated students from the Faculty of Translation and Interpreting of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Since a longitudinal study involving repeated measurements of the same sample population posed practical and technical problems, the decision was made to carry out a simulation of a longitudinal study by taking simultaneous measurements from a group of students from each year of the degree course in Translation, plus a group of recent graduates. The experimental sample was screened using an initial questionnaire. A group of approximately 30 students in each year were selected from those students who had passed the filter. Selected students had Spanish or Catalan as their A language; were within the average age group for their year; had not transferred from another degree course; and had passed at least 80% of the previous year's subjects (including translation and A and B language subjects). The 35 professional translators who participated in the TC experiment served as the control group. Six language combinations were used - German, French and English (as B-languages) and Spanish and Catalan (as A-languages) – as in the TC experiment. The experimental tasks carried out by subjects were also the same as in the TC experiment:

1. Completion of a Translation Knowledge Questionnaire.

2. Translation of a text into their A language (direct translation), followed by the completion of a questionnaire on the translation problems they had found.

3. Translation of a text into their B language (inverse translation), followed by the completion of a questionnaire on the translation problems they had found.

The instruments used for data collection purposes were those that had been validated in the TC experiment, i.e. the observation tool Camtasia; the Translation Knowledge Questionnaire; texts for direct and inverse translation (including Rich Points and acceptability criteria); as well as an adapted version of the Sample Selection Questionnaire and a revised version of the Translation Problems Questionnaire.

This paper presents the principal results obtained, future research perspectives, and applications relevant to translator training.

Bionote:

PACTE has been a competitive research group since 1997. PACTE group's main research interests are: Empirical and experimental-based research on translation competence and its acquisition in written translation; Translator training; Empirical and experimental research in Translation Studies; The use of new technologies in translation research. The Group was awarded the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Prize for Outstanding Research (PREI2010 UAB) for the article "Results of the Validation of the PACTE Translation Competence Model: Acceptability and Decision Making" (Across Languages and Cultures 10/2, 2009).

PAPER 2:

Title: Tolerance for ambiguity and the translation profession: A new direction for empirical research in translation

Speaker: Séverine Hubscher-Davidson, Aston University

Abstract:

There is a growing need to describe the profile of participants in translation process research and to draw inferences between individual traits and translation competences (Saldanha and O'Brien 2013: 146). Muñoz Martín argues that scores from an intelligence test could become a predictor of translation success (2010: 92), but recent evidence suggests that personalities and other individual differences may also have some explanatory power for success in translation (e.g. Hubscher-Davidson 2009). The potential links between participant profiles and translation quality are interesting to investigate as they increase our understanding of the different psychological mechanisms at play in translation, and could help students assess their own strengths and weaknesses as translators (Jääskeläinen 2012: 194). In this paper, the Tolerance for Ambiguity (TA) personality trait will be discussed in the context of professional translation, and the following research questions will be explored: does TA increase with professional experience in translation? Does TA predict translators' job satisfaction or job success? Is TA an important trait for personality profiling in translation?

Due to the very nature of translation, tolerating ambiguity is clearly a key skill. Translators are continuously faced with having to make difficult translation decisions and, more often than not, there is no right answer but many possible alternative solutions to the translation of a ST segment. Benjamin (2012: 40) acknowledged this tricky aspect of a translator's work: "Precisely because the meaning of the original formulation, the one to be translated, is not singular, translation begins with the 'ambiguous'". In addition, tolerance for ambiguity is said to be positively related to "performance in the global work environment and in cross-cultural settings" (Herman et al 2010). Therefore, being able to perceive ambiguous situations as desirable, or at least non-threatening, and reacting well to unfamiliar and complex stimuli, are clearly essential components of successful translation performance. It is therefore interesting to investigate the relationship between professional translators' performance and their ability to cope with change, ambiguity, and conflicting perspectives.

In this interdisciplinary study, a number of professional translators were contacted over the space of 3 months in 2014, and asked to fill in (1) a background questionnaire and (2) the Tolerance for Ambiguity Scale (TAS). A total of 91 professional translators took part in the study. The TAS is new to empirical translation research, though it has been successfully employed in other multilingual contexts (e.g. Dewaele and Wei 2013). Both questionnaires were internet-based, as this is said to reduce social desirability and enabled the participation of a large number of translators. The aim was to explore, with an innovative psychometric instrument, an under-researched aspect of translators' personalities and its relationship with work performance. The TAS contains items reflecting ambiguous stimuli commonly experienced in multilingual contexts, and can therefore be used in cross-cultural research and practice. In this paper, I will present the main results of the study, explain the methods employed, and discuss the potential importance of TA as a new direction for personality profiling in translation process research.

Bionote:

Séverine Hubscher-Davidson is a Lecturer in Translation Studies at Aston University, Birmingham. She teaches both translation theory and practice, and her research interests are in the areas of translation process research, translators' personalities and emotional intelligence, as well as individual differences more generally. She has published articles mainly on psychological aspects of the translation process, and is currently working on a book on the topic of emotionality in translation.

PAPER 3:

Title: Investigating emotional aspects of the translation process: an interdisciplinary methodological framework

Speaker: Caroline Lehr, University of Geneva

Abstract:

Translation processes have only over the past decades become the subject of systematic empirical studies and methodologies in process-oriented research need to be developed further. As the improvement of methodology continues to be an important topic, translation researchers are particularly concerned with finding methods that enable deeper insights into the nature of decision-making processes during translation. In psychology, numerous research has demonstrated the importance of emotion for human decision-making, however, their importance for the translation process has to date scarcely been considered and process research lacks appropriate methods for the investigation of emotional aspects.

To address this gap, the present paper briefly outlines how emotions are seen within the componential view of emotion and how emotions can exert influences on human decision-making. It then focuses on how these influences can be tested empirically by presenting an interdisciplinary methodological framework which integrates current methods used in translation process research and methods used in psychological research to induce and measure emotions. The framework is situated within the mixed-methods paradigm, allowing for a flexible integration and weighting of both quantitative and qualitative methods, and comprises four groups of methods: 1) emotion induction procedures, 2) online measures of emotion, 3) offline measures of emotion, and 4) assessments of inter-individual differences. Whereas the first group includes emotion induction procedures used in psychological research, such as bogus performance feedback, social interaction, or music; the second and third groups are based on online- and offline-methods used in translation process research, which are complemented by psychological assessments of emotional responding and are subdivided accordingly into the three categories of emotion measures: self-reports of emotional experience (valence/arousal scales, assessments of discrete emotions), physiological measures (brain states, activity of the autonomic nervous system), and behavior (behavioral expression of emotion, assessments of task performance during an emotional state). In the fourth group, relevant psychometric assessments, as for example instruments to assess emotional intelligence or emotion regulation strategies, complement assessments of inter-individual differences already employed in translation process research. The methods included in the four groups are outlined and their strengths and weaknesses are assessed, as well as their suitability for studies emphasizing ecological validity or experimental control and research addressing basic or more applied questions. Finally, the paper exemplifies how the different methods can be combined for designing experimental and correlational studies in translation process research that wish to empirically address the multiple questions that arise from the fact that emotion is a central organizing construct of human cognition.

Bionote:

Caroline Lehr studied translation at the University of Geneva and the University of Heidelberg. After graduation, she became a teaching and research assistant at the University of Geneva and was responsible for translation classes at Bachelor and Masters level. For her PhD, which she received in 2014, she conducted interdisciplinary research in collaboration with the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences.

PAPER 4:

Title: The role of expertise in emotion regulation: Exploring the effect of expertise on translation performance under emotional stir

Speakers: Ana Mª Rojo López and Marina Ramos Caro, University of Murcia

Abstract:

The influence of emotions on the translation process has been so far barely explored in translation process research. But new views on cognition adopted in recent years have cleared the ground to explore the role that psychological and emotional factors play in the translation process. Regarding emotion, the work by Lehr (2013) has recently proposed an empirical approach to research the impact of emotion on translation performance. Her research suggests that positive emotions may enhance facets of creativity in translation, in particular on idiomatic expressions and stylistic adequacy, whereas negative emotions may foster accuracy in translating terminology. Results of her work indicate that positive and negative emotions may trigger different processing styles. Other pioneering work that has also argued that emotion regulation may affect translation performance is that of Hubscher-Davidson (2013). She has shown that personality traits like intuition or emotional intelligence also play a role in regulating translators' behaviour and can lend support to more successful translating. But the question still remains as to the role that professional expertise may play in the process of emotion regulation and the final quality of their performance.

The present study aims to investigate the influence that expertise may exert on emotion regulation and its consequences for translation performance. Our study replicates Lehr's methodology, but also explores the influence of personality factors and level of expertise on the induced emotional impact. The experiment compares the performance of translation students with that of professional translators and assesses trait variation in the participants' psychological resilience (Block and Kremen's ego-resiliency scale (ER89)) and creativity (CREA, Torrance Test of Creative Thinking). Participants were asked to provide a translation of an emotional text, which was rated for accuracy and creativity. Later, they were randomly assigned to a positive or negative feedback group and received false feedback on their performance. Immediately afterwards they were asked to translate a second text, whose ratings for accuracy and creativity were compared to those from their first translation. A retrospective interview was finally carried out to obtain data on the participants' subjective feelings. Results of the study suggest that personality factors and level of expertise play a decisive role in regulating emotion and guiding translational behaviour and may foster enhanced translation performance even in emotionally stirring situations.

Bionote:

Ana Rojo is Senior Lecturer in Translation at the University of Murcia (Spain), where she has been Head of the Translation and Interpreting Department for five years and is currently Coordinator of the Master of Editorial Translation and President of the PhD Commission. Her main areas of research are the fields of Translation and Cognitive Linguistics. She has authored and co-edited several books and monograph issues and written many scholarly articles which have appeared either in specialised national and international journals or as book chapters published by several national and international publishing houses

PAPER 5:

Title: The mind behind - Attributive metacognition in translation and its effect on the translator

Speaker: Annegret Sturm,University of Geneva

Abstract:

In the context of translation, the term "metacognition" is most often used to refer to the translator's monitoring processes (Angelone 2010) or his/her awareness of the his/her own knowledge during the translation process (Hurtado Albir 2010). However, this type of self-referring metacognition (evaluative metacognition, Proust 2013) is not the only form of metacognition involved in translation. Even more central is the representation of other minds (Sperber 2000), also called "attributive metacognition" (Proust 2013). Although different branches of translation studies agree that translation is in itself a form of metarepresentation (Gutt 2000, Wolff 2002, Sturge 2007), one of the major implications of this fundamental claim has received little attention up to now, namely that translators are dealing with the content of other minds (Wilss 1992). Based on Hermans (2007), I shall argue that translation is a higher-order metarepresentation. Being the main agent in an "other-directed act" (Robinson 2001), the translator has to metarepresent two minds during the translation process, the source text author and the target audience. Its triadic nature makes translation a special form of communication. As a hybrid form of reported speech it can neither be classified as quotation nor as indirect speech. These distinctive features of translation should result in an enhanced metacognitive effort as compared to standard communication. Translators who are constantly operating on this higher metacognitive level should thus have a higher cognitive proficiency than non-translators. Developmental psychologists call our capacity of representing another person's mind 'Theory of Mind' (ToM). ToM develops throughout life (Kobayashi 2008) just as our pragmatic competence continues to evolve up to adulthood (Cummings 2007). Bilingualism is found to have an influence on ToM performance in children (Kovács 2009).

To test the hypothesis whether translation enhances metacognitive proficiency, I triangulated data of three experiments comparing students with two different levels of translation training (BA/ MA) using fMRI, eye tracking, key logging and translation quality analysis. Results of the fMRI study show that the metacognitive network is implicated in the translation condition. The behavioural data show that MA students have a clear advantage over BA students in terms of text comprehension and processing in the metacognitively demanding condition. However, the analysis of the translation products indicates that BA students develop strategies to compensate for their lack of metacognitive sensitivity in order to produce results which are comparable to those of MA students. Overall, this paper makes a point for transdisciplinarity in translation research. Translation does not only share common theoretical frameworks with other fields, but also contributes to them in a relevant way. As the world's population is becoming increasingly bilingual, life sciences encourage more research into translation (Abutalebi & Green 2007). Furthermore, psychologists have advocated for more ToM research in adults (Apperly 2014). Translation offers great potential for the study of the macrofeatures of understanding.

Bionote:

Annegret Sturm studied Interpreting, Translation and Pragmatics at the Universities of Leipzig and Geneva. She has been working as a professional translator in a think tank and specialized as a freelance translator in medical translation. Her research on the translator and translation competence is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

PAPER 6:

Title: Translation process differences between literary and technical translators

Speaker: Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund, University of Copenhagen, and Barbara Dragsted, Copenhagen Business School

Abstract:

It is common that translators specialise in certain domains and prefer working with specific text genres. Focussing on a few familiar text types rather than working with many different genres and topics allows the translator to gain experience and build up specialised expertise for those specific types of text. Consequently, technical translators are for example reluctant to take on literary translation jobs, and literary translators generally stay clear of technical texts. The relationship between text genre preference and familiarity and cognitive processing of translation has received only little attention in Translation Studies (Sannholm 2010). Differences in processing behaviours between literary translation and non-literary translation have not been studied systematically, and it is not yet known how translators process text genres that they are not very familiar with. Addressing these issues could add a new dimension to the characterisation of different translation styles and profiles (Dragsted and Carl 2013), and generate new insights into how translators behave when faced with a non-familiar task requiring them to rely on a different set of strategies and competences (e.g. Shreve 1997).

This paper presents the findings from a joint research project carried out at the University of Copenhagen and the Copenhagen Business School. The project aims at identifying and comparing processing behaviours of two groups of translators: 10 translators specialising in literary translation and 10 translators specialising in technical translation. The translators in both groups translate both a literary text and a technical text, i.e. they carry out both a familiar and a non-familiar task. Data from eye tracking, keylogging and retrospective interviews from the two groups of translators are recorded in a series of data collection sessions. The project thus triangulates qualitative and quantitative methods. In addition, it uses a novel method of presenting process data by means of overlaying translation progression graphs (Carl et al. 2011). The quality of the quantitative process data are carefully and thoroughly assessed (Hvelplund 2014) and the data are analysed inferentially using linear mixed-effects regression modelling (LMER) (cf. e.g. Baayen 2009, Balling and Hvelplund forthcoming) in order to be able to make more confident generalizations. The specific research aims of the project are to: 1) identify processing behaviour and strategies shared by literary translators and technical translators; 2) identify processing behaviour and strategies, which are unique to either literary or technical translators working with familiar text genres; 3) compare the processing behaviour and strategies involved in the translation of familiar text genres with the behaviour and strategies involved in the translation of non-familiar genres. Thus, the project aims on the one hand to gain more insight into the special competences and expertise associated with literary and technical translation respectively, and on the other hand to identify behavioural characteristics which are not apparently genre-dependent. Furthermore, the study will investigate if and to what extent experienced translators fall back on behaviour and strategies generally associated with novices when working with non-familiar genres.

Bionote:

Kristian Tangsgaard Hvelplund is Assistant Professor in the Department of English, Germanic and Romance Studies at the University of Copenhagen. He teaches courses on literary translation and on cognitive aspects of translation, and his research focuses on cognitive processes in translation, including audiovisual translation, and processes in reading and writing. Barbara Dragsted is Associate Professor at the Department of International Business Communication, Copenhagen Business School, where she is a member of the CRITT center. She teaches business communication and specialised translation, and her research interests include cognitive processes in translation and LSP translation and communication.

SESSION 2: Translation utility

PAPER 7:

Title: How editors read: An eye-tracking study of the effects of editorial experience and task instruction on reading behavior

Speaker: Melanie Ann Law, North-West University

Abstract:

Eye-tracking has been used as a method to study reading and the online operations involved in reading for several decades. While the focus of this research has mostly been on the processing of words and strings of words, attention is now shifting to reading behaviour as it relates to whole texts. One of the questions that has received attention is how reading behaviour changes depending on task instruction and task experience. This question has been the focus of several recent studies in the fields of translation and proofreading (as a component of the writing process). However, although reading is a critical process in the work of editors, to date there is no research on the reading behaviour of professional editors.

This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a pilot study that made use of eye-tracking to compare the reading behaviour of two groups of participants: editors and non-editors. The aims of the study were to establish if editors' reading behaviour exhibited differences when compared to non-editors, and across two reading tasks (reading for comprehension and reading with the aim to edit). Existing research on translation and proofreading has demonstrated that task instructions influence reading behaviour (Schotter et al., 2014; Göpferich et al., 2008). Studies on reading behaviour in translation have also suggested that experience may account for differences in reading behaviour (Jakobsen & Jensen, 2008). Based on this, this study hypothesised that there would be differences in the way editor and non-editor participants read texts, that task instructions to read for different purposes would lead to a change in reading behaviour for both groups, and that the instruction to read with the aim to edit would particularly strongly influence editors' reading. To test these hypotheses, differences in eye-tracking measures were examined. Specifically, the dependent variables of fixation duration, total fixation count, saccade length, total saccade count, and total task time, as they relate to the independent variables of experience and task instruction, were investigated.

Bionote:

Melanie Law is a lecturer in Language Practice at the North-West University's Vaal Triangle campus. Melanie holds an MA in Language Practice and is currently enrolled for a PhD in Language Practice. Her most recent publication explores the various factors that influence the work and tasks of professional editors. Her current research focuses on the integration of process-oriented methodologies in the investigation of professional editorial work.

PAPER 8:

Title: Studying the dynamics of term creation in European equally authentic texts in 24 official language versions

Speaker: Rita Temmerman, VrijeUniversiteit Brussel

Abstract:

According to Shuibhne (2008) the European multilingual policy amounts to little more than a 'myth of equality' among languages. Most of the European information flow moves from an original draft in Euro-English to official translations into Euro-varieties of (in principle and at least) all the other 23 languages (Euro-Italian, Euro-Dutch, Euro-Maltese, Euro-Finnish, etc.). In earlier work the dynamics of terminological understanding and the impact of terminology creation in a socio-cognitive multilingual reality was described and it was demonstrated that translators are at the basis of many coinages in the target languages that are given equivalent status to neologisms in Euro-English. This means that translators are involved in what Sager (1990: 80) calls "secondary term formation". In the present contribution we discuss European secondary term formation in translations against the background of recent insights in several disciplines. We start from the concept of "interlingual uncertainty", which is --as Cao (2003) demonstrates--, a characteristic of all bilingual and multilingual legal texts. Then we go into the need for balance between precision and vagueness, a requirement for all legal documents. On one hand a legal text has to be maximally determinate and precise, on the other hand the text has to cover every relevant situation and therefore some vagueness is essential. Yet vagueness may cause problems in a setting of "equal authenticity" as explained by Schilling (2010). Europe pledges allegiance to the protection of legitimate expectations and to the non-discrimination principle. The mix of the EU's equal authenticity principle, conceptual divergence, cultural load of terminology combined with misinterpretations of translators can cause serious problems. It is quite common that equally authentic language versions of a Community Law have different interpretations if taken on their own. Yet a citizen has every reason and the right to trust his or her own language version. We will use examples to illustrate that how a term is interpreted may depend on several contextual factors, even though the rule of law forms part of a shared European cultural space. When translating European texts, translators should be aware of these factors in order to achieve optimal quality in secondary term formation. Insights from cultural terminology theory (Diki-Kidiri 2008) may benefit the quality of secondary term formation.

Bionote:

Rita Temmerman is Professor in translation, multilingual intercultural communication and terminology studies at Department of Applied Linguistics, VrijeUniversiteit Brussel (CVC). Her research contributed to the sociocognitive approach in terminology management. The research focus is on several issues related to the translation of special language in general and terminology in particular, such as: application-oriented terminology analysis, dynamic multilingual neology creation, terminological variation in a multilingual setting, multilingual terminology and cognition, terminology harmonisation within the EU, understanding terminology in cognitive, linguistic, situational and cultural contexts, metaphor studies, dynamic systems in language, culture-bound understanding, terminology engineering software (using natural language processing technology).

PAPER 9:

Title: Cognitive effort in machine translation post-editing: A mixed-method approach

Speaker: Lucas Nunes Vieira, Newcastle University

Abstract:

In view of the popularity of machine translation (MT) post-editing (PE) as a solution to the ever-increasing demands placed on human translation, PE effort and its measurement have quickly become common topics of investigation in Translation Studies and related fields, with research findings having applications that involve the estimation of pay rates in PE as well as a more robust prediction of raw MT output quality. In this talk, a mixed-method approach to the investigation of cognitive effort in PE will be presented in the context of a study involving an analysis of think-aloud protocols (TAPs) carried out through the lens of large-scale eye-tracking and key-logging data.

The study sets out to uncover qualitative information regarding the nature of mental processes taking place at task moments corresponding to different estimated levels of the effort experienced by participants, also providing insights into methodological aspects pertaining to a converging use of automatic logs and TAPs. At an initial stage (S1) of the investigation, nineteen subjects were asked to post-edit English machine translations of excerpts of two French news articles in tasks that involved eye tracking, key logging and a sentence level measurement of perceived mental effort based on a scale borrowed from the field of Educational Psychology. TAPs were not used at this stage to avoid any potential interference they could have with automatic logs and participants' perceptions. In a subsequent stage (S2), a new sample of nine participants, comparable to the previous sample in source language proficiency, previous experience, and sentiment towards MT, was asked to post-edit the same texts, but now under a think-aloud condition. This dual setting enabled a contrast of large-scale information gathered in S1 with in-depth think-aloud data gathered in S2. Preliminary results are indicative of potential connections between different levels of cognitive effort and the different aspects of the activity participants focus on, such as grammar, lexis, and readership-specific issues. A preliminary analysis of the data is also suggestive of the potential of TAPs when used as a tool to carry out qualitative analyses informed by large-scale quantitative data. Despite having come under criticism in recent years, TAPs have the advantage of providing information that lies at a deeper level in comparison with automatic logs. Automatic logging methods, on the other hand, are certainly attractive in view of their relative objectivity and less invasive nature. In view of the advantages that are inherent to both methods, this talk is hoped to provide insights into how TAPs and automatic logs can be combined in a strategy that tentatively avoids a trade-off scenario which at first sight may seem inevitable. Further details regarding potential links between TAPs and eye tracking as indices of cognitive effort in PE are also provided, constituting, to the best knowledge of the author, the first study where information of this kind is made available in the context of PE, with findings that are hoped to also inform cognitive investigations in translation as well as traditional revision.

Bionote:

Lucas Nunes Vieira is a PhD student in Translation Studies at Newcastle University, in the UK. After completing a Linguistics and Modern Languages degree in Brazil, he did a joint MA in Natural Language Processing and Human Language Technology at the University of Algarve in Portugal, and the University of Franche-Comté in France. In the past seven years he has also worked as an editor and translator for publishers in Brazil and in the UK.

PAPER 10:

Title: Cognitive effort in human translation and post-editing: an analysis of pupil dilation and fixation duration on metaphors

Speaker: Arlene Koglin, Federal University of Minas Gerais

Abstract:

The combination of temporal, technical and cognitive effort has been proposed as metrics to evaluate the feasibility of post-editing (Krings, 2001). Whereas temporal and technical effort are easier to measure, cognitive effort is more complex and therefore may require a combination of measures in order to have more reliable results, as well as a deeper understanding of cognitive processing. Translation process research usually relies on fixation duration and fixation count to measure cognitive effort; however, more recent studies have tested pupil size as an indicator of cognitive processing. Experimental evidence from Interpreting Studies (Hyönä, Tommola & Alaja, 1995) suggests that pupil size reflects momentary variations in processing load during a translation task. Their findings also indicate that words that are more difficult to translate induced higher levels of pupil dilation than easily translatable words. These results are encouraging with respect to the use of pupil dilation as an indicator of variation in cognitive processing, but further translation-process-driven studies are necessary to test the validity of pupil dilation as a standard measure of cognitive effort.

This presentation reports on an empirical study analyzing cognitive effort required to translate from scratch in comparison to post-editing a machine-translated output. More specifically, the study has two objectives. First, we aim at investigating the cognitive effort required to post-edit machine-translated metaphors compared to the translation of metaphors by analyzing differences between fixation duration and pupil dilation in areas of interest (AOIs) in source and target texts. The second aim is to test whether the pupillary response can be applied to study cognitive processing by correlating it with fixation duration, which is a well-established measure of cognitive effort in translation process studies. We hypothesized that a) translating metaphors from scratch would require more cognitive effort than post-editing them, and b) pupil dilation would have a positive correlation with fixation duration. In order to test these hypotheses, an experiment was carried out at the Laboratory for Experimentation in Translation (LETRA) under two different conditions. The control group was asked to translate a 224-word newspaper text whereas the experimental group was asked to post-edit a machine- translated output of the same source text. The multimethod data collection included eye tracking, key logging and retrospective protocols. For the purposes of this paper, eye-tracking data related to fixation duration and pupil size during the translation and post-editing of five metaphors are analyzed. Preliminary results indicate that the cognitive effort required to post-edit conventional metaphors is lower than translating them from scratch. However, creative metaphors are more cognitively demanding to be post-edited in comparison to translating them from scratch. Similarly to Hvelplund's (2014) findings, our initial analysis provides indications that fixation duration and pupil dilation are positively correlated. The corroboration of this trend in subsequent analyses may contribute to the validation of this measure as a standard indicator of cognitive processing.

Bionote:

Arlene Koglin is a PhD candidate (expected date of completion: March 2015) in Translation Studies at Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Her PhD thesis focus on the cognitive effort required to post-edit metaphors and to translate them from scratch.

PAPER 11:

Title: Source text features and their relationship to cognitive demand and cognitive effort in post-editing

Speaker: Isabel Lacruz, Kent State University

Abstract:

Our objective is to contribute to identify source text features that are associated with increased levels of cognitive effort during post-editing of machine translation (MT) output. Recent work (Lacruz et al. 2012; Lacruz & Shreve 2013) has identified pause metrics as indicators of cognitive effort in post-editing. The simplest of these is the pause to word ratio (PWR), the number of pauses per word in a post-edited segment. Processing rate is another intrinsic measure of cognitive effort (Koponen et al. 2012). Cognitive effort by post-editors is the result of cognitive demand placed on them by errors that need to be corrected in MT output. It is commonly measured by quality metrics.

MT quality has routinely been measured by subjective human judgments and by automatic metrics that measure in various ways how close MT output is to a reference translation. One commonly used automatic metric is HTER (Snover et. al. 2006), which is a form of edit to word ratio, using the post-edited product as a reference translation. Both human quality judgments and HTER are extrinsic measures of MT quality, and so of cognitive demand. Recently, Lacruz et al. (2014), building on work of Lacruz and Muñoz (2014), proposed error to word ratio (EWR), the number of errors per word in an MT segment, as an intrinsic measure of MT quality. For post-editing of Spanish to English MT output, they found strong correlations between PWR, EWR, HTER, and human judgments of MT quality.

The current work examines which source text features correspond to different levels of cognitive demand imposed by MT output on post-editors, and of cognitive effort made by post-editors. We triangulate data from multiple modalities, including eye tracking, mouse tracking, and keystroke logging. In particular, we revisit the relationship between negative translatability indicators and cognitive demand and effort (e.g. O'Brien 2006). Using experimentally controlled source segments to reduce the noise that is inevitable in ecological studies, we also identify source text features that are associated with two categories of MT errors: transfer errors (errors that require the post-editor to refer to the source text) and mechanical errors (errors that can be successfully edited without reference to the source text) (Koby & Champe 2013). Transfer errors are more strongly correlated with cognitive demand (EWR and HTER) and cognitive effort (PWR) than are mechanical errors (Lacruz et al. 2014). We also map linguistically classified errors back to source text features, building on findings of Koponen et al. (2012) and Lacruz et al. (2014). Koponen et al., working with modifications of Temnikova's (2010) taxonomy of MT errors, and Lacruz et al., working with modifications of ATA grading rubrics (Koby & Champe 2013), both found that different linguistic categories of MT error are associated with different levels of cognitive demand and effort.

Bionote:

Isabel Lacruz is Assistant Professor of Translation Studies at Kent State University. She teaches doctoral courses on empirical research methods for translation, and translation and cognition, as well as master level translation practice courses. Lacruz' current research interests include investigation of the mental processes involved in translation and post-editing. She has published theoretical and empirical articles on cognitive aspects of translation and post-editing.

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Last modified on Thursday, 16 April 2015 16:07

Pedagogical Approaches to Computer-Assisted Translation Tools
Marileide Dias Esqueda, Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil
Érika Nogueira de Andrade Stupiello,São Paulo State University, Brazil

Considering the diversified scenario in which technology is being taught in undergraduate level in institutions around the world, with some of them having already fully integrated the teaching of tools to their curriculum, whereas others, facing limitations in personnel and infrastructure, are only beginning to include technology in their courses, this panel proposes to address theoretical and practical perspectives of the use and teaching of translation tools at undergraduate level. The objective of this panel is to bring together those concerned about the impact of technology in training of translators, the gap between academia and the market and the impact of new trends, such as crowdsourcing, in translation training.

For informal enquiries: [marileide_esquedaATileelDOTufuDOTbr]

Photo Marileide Esqueda

Marileide Dias Esqueda is a professor at the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), where she teaches translation theory and practice in English and Portuguese. She holds a Master's Degree and a Ph.D. in Translation Studies from the State University of Campinas (Unicamp). She is member of the research group Translatio (UFU), sponsored by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq Brazil). Her research areas are pedagogy of translation, and translation tools. She has published articles in edited volumes and journals.

 

Photo.Érika StupielloÉrika Nogueira de Andrade Stupiello is a professor at the São Paulo State University (Unesp), where she teaches translation practice in English and Portuguese. She holds a Master's Degree and a Ph.D. in Translation Studies from the São Paulo State University (Unesp). She has worked as a sworn translator and interpreter for English and Portuguese since 2000. She is member of the research group Multidisciplinary Approaches on Translation (Multitrad), sponsored by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq Brazil), and has been developing research on translation tools, translation ethics and localization. She has published and presented her work both in Brazil and abroad.

 

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SESSION PLAN

This panel is not divided into thematic sessions.

PANEL STRUCTURE

INTRODUCTION 20 minutes for – Teaching Translation Technology Tools at Undergraduate Level: Challenges and Perspectives

Érika Nogueira de Andade Stupiello and Marileide Dias Esqueda

PAPER 1 – 20 minutes for presentation + 10 minutes for discussion

Title: Integrating Translation Technologies across the Curriculum: A call for a more critical approach to translation tools

Speaker: Matthieu LeBlanc, Department of Translation and Modern Languages at the Université de Moncton (Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada)

Abstract: While translation technologies are now an integral part of university-based translator-training programs, much of the training on technologies is concentrated in specific courses – or in one specific course – devoted to computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools rather than integrated throughout the curriculum, i.e. in general/specialized translation courses or other more theoretical courses. Some have stressed the importance of integrating tools across the curriculum given their ubiquity in the professional workplace and the considerable changes they have brought about to the translation process. Others have suggested that we need to train translators to become critical users of technologies.

In this paper, I will explore the relationship between translation technology training offered in Canadian universities and the integration of junior translators into the workplace. I will draw on qualitative data collected during a three-month ethnographic survey conducted in three different translation firms and services located in Canada. As part of a larger study focusing on translation technologies and professional satisfaction, junior translators were surveyed, via semi-directed interviews, in order to assess their use of technology in the workplace and the relevance of the training they received in university. Senior translators, who are called upon to supervise the work of junior translators, were also interviewed. Translators were also observed at work, at their workstations in order to obtain a better picture of the nature of the work and the use of CAT tools, among other things.

Data analysis revealed that junior translators were generally satisfied with the technology training they received in university and adapted well to tools they were required to use at work. Senior translators confirmed that juniors were indeed sufficiently tech-savvy and certainly not against the use of tools. That being said, nearly all junior translators were surprised to discover the extent to which their work revolved around certain tools, more specifically translation memory (TM) software. In fact, while they did understand how TMs worked and had used such tools in their translation technologies course or even during their internships, they were not aware of the significant role they play in the overall translation process, in establishing productivity requirements and in limiting their control over the target text. In the end, the majority of junior translators felt that they lacked a certain critical awareness of technologies and of their impact on administrative and business practices.

In this paper, I will look at ways that translator-training programs could better integrate CAT tools throughout the curriculum and, more importantly, help students think more critically about the central role played by translation technologies in the professional world.

Bionote: Dr. Matthieu LeBlanc is an associate professor of translation within the Department of Translation and Modern Languages at the Université de Moncton (Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada). He holds a B.A. in Geography & History, an honors B.Tr. in English-French translation, an M.A. in Translation and a Ph.D. in Sociolinguistics. A former professional translator, Dr. LeBlanc now teaches translation, and conducts research in translation and sociolinguistics. His current research focuses on the translator's status and translation practices in an increasingly automated working environment. He has published in the fields of translation, sociolinguistics and language planning, and presented conferences in several countries.

PAPER 2 – 20 minutes for presentation + 10 minutes for discussion

Title: Towards Built Pedagogy in Computer-assisted Translation: Rethinking Learning Spaces

Speaker: Vanessa Enriquez Raido, University of Auckland (Auckland, New Zealand)

Abstract: This paper first analyzes various key trends that have contributed to the reshaping of the current translation technology landscape and the main implications of these trends for translator training. With recent advances in translation automation technologies, above all of statistical machine translation, translators and other language-related professionals are seeing the trends of ubiquity, mobility, connectivity, and immediacy converging on the industry. These trends are, in turn, enabled by other trends, such as the transition from desktop to client/server applications and then to cloud-based services, the growing use of large amounts of data as well as open source technology, the adoption of platforms enabling massive online collaboration, and the integration of translation technologies into a wide range of devices and applications. In light of these trends, this paper then proposes a number of pedagogical reasons for promoting the teaching of translation technologies "everyware" as well as the transversal use of online information skills not only as a quasi-universal means to problem solving and decision making but also as a means towards self-discovery and lifelong learning. This, in turn, involves thinking about the various teaching and learning spaces that would facilitate the implementation of technologized learning environments in translator education. Learning spaces "in" the university are becoming more and more virtual than ever before. Thus, spaces, whether physical or virtual, might impact learning. For example, space can bring people together as well as encourage discovery, exploration, collaboration, and discussion. Yet, space can also encourage silence and disconnectedness. Subsequently, this paper will lastly address various key questions within a highly under-researched area in translator education known in the educational literature as "built pedagogy", or the ability of space to define how one teaches and learns in universities. In particular, the paper will explore the power of built pedagogy for the teaching and learning of translation technology, i.e. how is learning influenced not just by how we learn, but also by where we learn it and through which means.

Bionote: Vanessa Enríque Raído is a Senior Lecturer in Translation Studies at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. She specializes in translation technology, translator education, and web searching for translators, where she has published a number of book chapters and journal article.

PAPER 3 – 20 minutes for presentation + 10 minutes for discussion

Titile: Applied Research Projects: bridging the gap between research and practice. A case study in MT evaluation.

Speaker: Sandrine Peraldi, ISIT (Paris-France)

Abstract: This paper aims at describing the implementation and the results of an Applied Research Project in the field of machine translation and post-editing. Applied Research Projects are genuine professional projects commissioned by specific companies or research centers (in specialised translation, communication or terminology management) and carried out by Master students under the supervision of researchers and/or experts of the translation industry. These projects enable our students to gain invaluable professional experience by working closely with those companies and meeting their specific industry needs, while developing many research and technological skills.

More specifically, the analysis presented in this paper was initiated by a translation company specialising in regulated financial information. It consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a combined approach of machine translation (MT) and computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools in the financial field. Translation companies specialising in finance are indeed often required to translate extremely high volumes of texts at very short notice, while providing high quality translations to be approved by regulatory authorities. They are thus compelled to streamline as much as possible the translating process, while reducing the number of translators working on the same document as it can affect its quality and its terminological and stylistic coherence.

Despite recent and significant advances in MT (due in particular to the use of hybrid engines that combine linguistic and statistic approaches), computer systems, depending on the domain and the type of texts to be processed, still give rise to relatively poor quality translations, that require an uneconomically large amount of post-editing efforts. On the one hand, the syntactic complexity and the terminological density of the financial field can result in a large number of non-sense phrases, misinterpretations as well as stylistic missteps within the target translation that usually cannot be dealt with through a modification of the syntactic rules or the integrated dictionaries. On the other hand, the high degree of redundancy that characterizes those documents makes CAT tools particularly suitable for integrating machine translation to translation memories. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether the combination of machine translation and computer-assisted tools could offer a credible alternative to human translation from a qualitative and economical perspective.

A three-step methodology was thus implemented. Two different corpora consisting of financial and legal texts were first translated using a specific CAT/MT tool. Secondly, a typology of errors was built by classifying and analyzing the translation segments generated. Finally, this hybrid method was evaluated in terms of time, money savings and quality as compared to human translation. Special attention was paid to the influence of the MT on the post-editor translation choices, during the proofreading stage.

We therefore propose to describe in this paper the different processing steps of our analysis and the final results of this research project, while highlighting the many advantages of such pedagogical projects that enable to gear research and professionalization among Master students.

Bionote: Research Director at ISIT, Sandrine Peraldi holds a PhD in Terminology and Corpus Linguistics (University Paris Diderot). Dr. Peraldi has been in charge of Research projects and European Projects at ISIT since 2006. She lectures in Terminology, Corpus Linguistics, CAT tools and Machine translation. She also supervises Masters research dissertations. As a member of the CRATIL and the CLILLAC-ARP (Paris 7) research centres, she has published more than 30 research articles in the field of onto-terminology, discourse analysis, semantics and machine translation. She is Editor in chief of the Bulletin du CRATIL, the scientific journal of ISIT's research centre.

PAPER 4 – 20 minutes for presentation + 10 minutes for discussion

Title: Exploring the Pedagogical Potential and Challenges of Interactive Translation Dictation

Speaker: Julián Zapata, University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Canada)

Abstract: Our presentation will explore interactive translation dictation (ITD) from a pedagogical viewpoint. ITD is defined as a translation technique that involves mainly voice interaction with multimodal interfaces (MIs) equipped with voice recognition (VR) technology, throughout the entire translation process, namely during preparation, production and revision. Examples of commercially available MIs include smartphones, tablets and touchscreen computers, which are primarily voice- and touch-enabled.

VR is a technological application that gives a machine the ability to recognize and process human voice and speech. Research on VR technology dates back to the early stages of computing in the mid-20th century. Today, after decades of research and development in the field, VR systems are available in several major languages and widely used in a variety of applications, not only for obtaining automatic transcriptions of speech, but also for issuing voice commands to the operating systems in desktop computers and MIs. This technology has the potential to become one of the most efficient, cost-effective and ergonomic applications in the near future for translation professionals, but significant technical and pedagogical challenges still need to be addressed.

In this presentation, we will first provide an overview of the evolution of VR technology and the extent to which it has been explored and used in translation practice and teaching. Secondly, some of the current challenges and limitations of this technology will be described while lending support to the idea of integrating sight translation, translation dictation and VR courses to translator training programs as a partial solution to the challenges. Indeed, as the technology improves, universities play an increasingly crucial role in efficiently integrating VR technology to the translator's toolbox. However, in this integration, translators will have to learn to dictate efficiently; they will have to adopt entirely new translation techniques. To wrap up our presentation, we will present and discuss, from a pedagogical perspective, the preliminary results of an empirical study on ITD carried out within the framework of our doctorate in translation studies (in progress), and will outline avenues for future research.

Bionote: Julián Zapata holds an Honours B.A. in English-French-Spanish translation and a M.A. in translation studies from the University of Ottawa, where he is currently pursuing his doctoral degree. His research interests include multimodal interaction, speech technologies, translation dictation and translation technologies. He is also a professor of translation (English-Spanish) and a teacher and research assistant in translation technology, and has collaborated in a number of projects related particularly to computer-aided translation tools and translator training.

PAPER 5 – 20 minutes for presentation + 10 minutes for discussion

Title: 'Locating' Mobile Localisation into the Translator Training Curriculum

Speaker 1: María del Mar Sánchez Ramos, University of Alcalá (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain)

Sepaker 2: Lucía Morado Vázquez, Department of Translation Technology at the Faculty of Translation and Interpretation, University of Geneva (Geneva, Switzerland)

Abstract: In the last years, the localisation industry has become a growing market as a means of digital communication, where localisation is defined as the linguistic and cultural adaptation of digital content to the requirements of a specific market or 'locale'. This professional area offers a wide range of possibilities for translators as translation is an essential part of the localisation process. Nevertheless, our undergraduates need technical expertise in order to fulfil the localisation requirements. Teaching localisation implies applying learning methodologies based upon a conceptual and procedural knowledge so that students can acquire a sufficient number of technical capabilities and competences and to prepare them for the current localisation market place. In terms of products to be localised, such as webpages, software programs or videogames, mobile localisation is emerging as a new area and a new market for translators interested in developing more technical skills and become part of the localisation industry. Mobile localisation has its own technical and cultural implications and it can be considered an isolated area of study. Based upon a theoretical and practical approach carried out at the University of Alcalá (Spain) and University of Geneva (Switzerland), we will describe how we have implemented an effective methodology to teach mobile localisation. We will also discuss the main constraints that this specific localisation area entails: the choice of mobile operating system to be used in our labs and tutorials (ios, android, windows phone...) as each of them can imply different teaching procedures and technical implications; the minimalist nature of mobile applications and the specific language that they use; and the difficulty of obtaining real devices to test our localised applications and the current alternative solutions, such as the use of emulators, which are not always able to replicate all the possible case scenarios (e.g. the use of the accelerometer). Finally, we will explain how Computer-Assisted Translation tools can be adapted to train our students on this particular field and how we have made use of their advanced features in our lessons: such as the creation of ad hoc filters for the recognition of translatable text within the source code of a mobile application.

Bionote Speaker 1: María del Mar Sánchez Ramos is a Lecturer in Translation Studies at the University of Alcalá (Madrid, Spain). She studied at the University of Granada (Spain) and received her Ph.D. in Translation Studies from Universitat Jaume I (Castellon, Spain). She completed her post-doctoral studies on Corpus-based Translation Studies at Centre for Translation and Textual Studies, Dublin City University, Ireland. Her main areas of interest are translator training, corpus-based translation studies, localisation and translation technology. Her research has been developed within different national and international projects (ECPC, GEA, AGORA, FITISPOS).

Bionote Speaker 2: Lucía Morado Vázquez is a researcher and lecturer at the Department of Translation Technology at the Faculty of Translation and Interpretation, University of Geneva, Switzerland, on the areas of localisation, computer-assisted translation tools and information technology. She holds a PhD in localisation at the Localisation Research Centre, at the University of Limerick, Ireland. She holds a BA in translation and interpreting at University of Salamanca, Spain. She has been a voting member of the XLIFF Technical Committee and the XLIFF Promotion and Liaison Subcommittee since its establishment. Her research interests are standards of localisation, localisation training and translation memories' metadata.

PAPER 6 – 20 minutes for presentation + 10 minutes for discussion

Title: Translation Technologies: Promises and Challenges for a Less Commonly Taught Language

Speaker: Mehmet Şahin, Department of Translation and Interpretation, Bilkent University (Ankara, Turkey)

Abstract: Computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools and machine translation (MT) systems are becoming ubiquitous for commonly spoken and taught languages such as English, German, French, and Spanish. Technological competence is already included in the EMT (European Master's in Translation) model of translation competence and it is a required skill for translators and interpreters seeking positions in European institutions. Turkish language, although spoken by a large number of people in the Euro-Asian region, has been a less-commonly taught language in the world and received less attention in terms of CAT tools and MT studies. Despite the imbalance in regard to variety and quality of CAT tools and MT and to volume of studies between commonly taught and spoken languages and Turkish language, the volume of translations is growing each day and turn-around time for translation tasks is becoming less and less for both in a parallel manner. Recent surveys show that there is not much consistency in terms of technology use in translation departments in universities and in translation companies in Turkey. Similarly, not all translation departments have a faculty member to teach translation technologies because most of them come from various related fields such as literary studies, linguistics, and education. Even most graduates of translation studies are not fully competent in technology partly because it is an emerging field within translation studies and partly because of lack of interest. On the other hand, translation students and novice translators show a high level of interest in technology courses and eagerness in integrating technology in their work. All of these factors pose a big challenge for translator trainers, translators, and translation companies. How should we teach technology? What should be required from candidate translators in terms of skills and competence? Can we reach a consistency in terms of required competences? Which components of technology should be included in the translation curriculum? How can awareness and research in translation technologies be promoted among scholars? What is the future of CAT tools and MT in Turkey? This study will try to find answers to these questions through documentary research, surveys to translations students and instructors/scholars and to translation companies.

Bionotes: Mehmet Şahin completed his undergraduate studies in the Department of Translation and Interpretation at Bilkent University where he also received his master's degree in Teacher Education. He pursued his doctoral studies in Curriculum and Instruction with a minor in MA in Applied Linguistics/TESOL at Iowa State University. His research studies during his doctoral studies were mainly on computer-assisted language learning and language technologies. Mehmet Şahin is working as an assistant professor of translation and interpretation at Izmir University of Economics since 2008 and his research interests include translation studies, translation and interpreting technologies, machine translation and translator and interpreter training.

WRAP-UP SECTION – 20 minutes

Overviewing the proposals and fostering new ideas to contribute towards the integration of technologies in the translator's training

Érika Nogueira de Andrade Stupiello – Unesp Campus of São José do Rio Preto SP

Marileide Dias Esqueda – Universidade Federal de Uberlândia MG

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 18:33

New Perspectives on Cohesion and Coherence: Implications for Translation
Kerstin Kunz, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski, Saarland University, Germany
Katrin Menzel, Saarland University, Germany

 

The panel will investigate textual relations of cohesion and coherence in translation and multilingual text production with a strong focus on innovative methods of empirical analysis, as well as technology and computation. Given the amount of multilingual computation that is taking place, this topic is important for both human and machine translation, and further multilingual studies. Cohesion refers to the text-internal relationship of linguistic elements that are overtly linked via lexical and grammatical devices across sentence boundaries to be understood as a text. The recognition of coherence in a text is more subjective as it involves text- and reader-based features and refers to the logical flow of interrelated ideas in a text, thus establishing a mental textual world. There is a connection between these two concepts in that relations of cohesion can be regarded as explicit indicators of meaning relations in a text and, hence, contribute to its overall coherence.

The aim of this panel is to bring together scholars analyzing cohesion and coherence from different research perspectives that cover translation-relevant topics: language contrast, translationese and machine translation. What these approaches share is that they investigate instantiations of discourse phenomena in a multilingual context. And moreover, language comparison is based on empirical data. The challenges here can be identified with respect to the following methodological questions:

1. How to arrive at a cost-effective operationalization of the annotation process when dealing with a broader range of discourse phenomena?

2. Which statistical techniques are needed and are adequate for the analysis? And which methods can be combined for data interpretation?

3. Which applications of the knowledge acquired are possible in multilingual computation, especially in machine translation?

The contributions of different research groups involved in our panel reflect these questions. On the one hand, some contributions will concentrate on procedures to analyse cohesion and coherence from a corpus-linguistic perspective (M. Rysová, K. Rysová). On the other hand, our panel will include papers with a particular focus on textual cohesion in parallel corpora that include both originals and translated texts (K. Kerremans, K. Kunz/ E. Lapshinova-Koltunski/ S. Degaetano-Ortlieb, A. Kutuzov/M. Kunilovskayath). And finally, the papers in the panel will also include discussion of the nature of cohesion and coherence with implications for human and machine translation (E. Lapshinova-Koltunski, C. Scarton/ L. Specia, K. S. Smith/L. Specia).

Targeting the questions raised above and addressing them together from different research angles, the present panel will contribute to moving empirical translation studies ahead.

For informal enquiries: [eDOTlapshinovaATmxDOTuni-saarlandDOTde]

Foto Kunz

Kerstin Kunz (University of Heidelberg) holds an interim professorship at the Institute of Translation and Interpreting. She finished her PhD on Nominal Coreference in English and German in 2009. Since then, she has been involved in empirical research projects dealing with properties of translations and English-German contrasts on the level of lexicogrammar and discourse. Together with Erich Steiner, she currently has GECCo project (http://www.gecco.uni-saarland.de/GECCo/Home.html) at the Department of Applied Linguistics, Translation and Interpreting (Saarland University), in which different types of cohesive relations in English and German are explored, contrasting languages, originals and translations as well as written and spoken registers.

Foto LapshinovaEkaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski (Saarland University) is a post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Applied Linguistics, Translation and Interpreting. She finished her PhD on semi-automatic extraction and classification of language data at Institute for Natural Language Processing (Stuttgart) in 2010. Since then, she has been working in corpus-based projects related to language variation, language contrasts and translation, one of which is GECCo (http://www.gecco.uni-saarland.de/GECCo/Home.html). In 2012 she received a start-up research grant from the Saarland University to build resources for the analysis on variation in translation caused by different dimensions (register, translation method) resulting in translation varieties (including both human and machine translation).

Foto Menzel

Katrin Menzel (Saarland University) studied Conference Interpreting and Translation Studies at Saarland University (Saarbrücken, Germany). She has been working as a teaching and research staff member at the Department of Applied Linguistics, Translation and Interpreting at Saarland University since 2011. Katrin is involved in the research project "GECCo" on cohesion in English and German and works on the case study of ellipses as cohesive ties for her PhD thesis.

 

 

 

SESSION PLAN

Each paper is allocated with a 20 minutes time slot + 10 minutes discussion.

Discussion time is used at the end of each paper.

Introduction (20 Minutes)

SESSION 1: Contrastive Aspects of Cohesion and Coherence

PAPER 1:

Title: How to Annotate Multiword Discourse Connectives in Large Corpora

Speaker: Magdaléna Rysová, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

PAPER 2:

Title: Interaction of Coreference and Sentence Information Structure in the Prague Dependency Treebank

Speaker: Kateřina Rysová, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

SESSION 2: Textual Cohesion and Translation

PAPER 3:

Title: Terminological variation in multilingual parallel corpora: a semi-automatic method involving co-referential analysis

Speaker: Koen Kerremans, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

PAPER 4:

Title: Cohesive chains in an English-German parallel corpus: Methodologies and challenges

Speaker: Kerstin Kunz, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski, Saarland University (Germany) and Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb, Saarland University (Germany)

PAPER 5:

Title: Testing target text cohesion: An attempt at machine learning model to predict acceptability of sentence boundaries in English-Russian translation

Speaker: Andrey Kutuzov, Linguistic Lab on Corpus Technologies, Higher School of Economics (Moscow, Russia) and Maria Kunilovskaya, Tyumen State University (Russia)

SESSION 3: Aspects of Cohesion and Coherence in Human vs. Machine Translation

PAPER 6:

Title: Cohesion and Translation Variation: Corpus-based Analysis of Translation Varieties

Speaker: Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski, Saarland University (Germany)

PAPER 7:

Title: Exploring Discourse in Machine Translation Quality Estimation

Speaker: Carolina Scarton, University of Sheffield (UK) and Lucia Specia, University of Sheffield (UK)

PAPER 8:

Title: Examining Lexical Coherence in a Multilingual Setting

Speaker: Karin Sim Smith, University of Sheffield (UK) and Lucia Specia (University of Sheffield)

PAPER TITLES, ABSTRACTS AND BIONOTES

PAPER 1

Title: How to Annotate Multiword Discourse Connectives in Large Corpora

Speaker: Magdaléna Rysová, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to introduce a new annotation of multiword discourse connectives in the Prague Dependency Treebank (PDT) with respect to the fact how our annotation principles may be used by other large corpora of other languages like English or German. The annotation covers a heterogeneous class of multiword connectives (sometimes called alternative lexicalizations of discourse connectives, shortly AltLexes – cf. Prasad et. al, 2010) like "the condition is, that is the reason why, he explained, because of these facts" etc. Due to this huge heterogeneity, it was hard to create generally universal and uniform annotation principles that would fit for expressions whose basis are formed by nouns ("reason, condition, difference..."), verbs ("to cause, to explain, to mean...") or secondary prepositions ("because of, due to, with respect to..."). To create such principles and annotate the PDT corpus lasted three years (by three annotators – trained linguists with orientation on discourse). The annotation is partially manual and partially automatic. As for automatic detection of some multiword connectives, we made use of the interconnection of discourse and coreference, as some multiword connectives obligatory combines with anaphoric expressions like "due to this, because of this fact, this means" etc. Since the annotation of coreference already exists in PDT (see Nedoluzhko et al., 2011), it may be well used for the annotation of discourse (see Rysová, Mírovský, 2014). The paper will also present the principles according to which it is possible to state the boundaries among the wide class of multiword connectives. One of them is the principle of universality – some of the multiword connectives function as universal indicators of certain discourse relations (like "that is the reason why, because of this..."), while others are not universal but contextually dependent (like "because of this increase, this order means..."). Altogether the new annotation of multiword connectives contains app. 1.300 of discourse relations (the final number may slightly change, as the data are now being checked and corrected). Analysis of multiword discourse connectives (or AltLexes) and its annotation on large data is very current and not so much investigated theme of discourse analysis. As far as we know, our annotation is one of the first detailed and elaborated annotations of multiword connectives in today's linguistics and we hope that it may help in creating similar principles for other languages and corpora containing discourse relations.

Bionote: Magdaléna Rysová works as a Research Assistant at the Institute of Formal and Applied Linguistics, Charles University in Prague. Her main research interests are discourse analysis (with orientation on discourse connectives and their annotation in large corpora) and information structure. She is the PI of two internal university grants – "Discourse Connectives in Czech" (2013–2015) and "Discourse Relations within a Text" (2013–2014). She is a team member of several national and international grants, e.g. COST – "Structuring Discourse in Multilingual Europe (TextLink)". She will finish her Ph.D. study soon (Ph.D. thesis theme: "Possibilities of Expressing Discourse Relations in Czech").

PAPER 2:

Title: Interaction of Coreference and Sentence Information Structure in the Prague Dependency Treebank

Speaker: Kateřina Rysová, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

Abstract: The paper tries to examine how coreference and anaphora relations in combination with the sentence information structure participate on text coherence.

Very often, text is studied and examined through many individual linguistic phenomena and, therefore, viewed through different linguistic optics. Besides this, it is useful to study text from more perspectives at once because the interdisciplinarity and interplay of the individual discourse phenomena help to see various text relations as interlinked net of relations of different kind. Therefore, we try to see the coreference and anaphoric relations and information structure in multilevel connections and to see how these two linguistic phenomena influence and help each other.

The complex view on the text for our purposes is enabled by the Prague Dependency Treebank (PDT) (Bejček et al., 2013) that offers a multilayer annotation of different discourse (and also other) phenomena at once.

The aim of the paper is to explore the relationship between coreference (and anaphoric) relations and topic or focus nature of words (in terms of sentence information structure /IS/). IS is seen from the perspective of Functional Generative Description (Hajičová et al., 1998), coreference and bridging anaphora are treated as in Nedoluzhko (2011).

The general question is whether words from the coreference (and anaphoric) chains occur rather in the focus or topic part of the sentence. In other words, we try to demonstrate how the information structure is developed depending on anaphora and coreference (i.e. which part of the sentence is further elaborated within a text through coreference and anaphoric chains, whether topic or focus, and in which way).

In the paper, we measure (in coherent newspaper texts) how the coreference and anaphoric text relations are dense (or sparse) 1) among contextually bound sentence members (i.e. among typically topic members); 2) among contextually non-bound sentence members (i.e. among typically focus members) and 3) among contextually bound and non-bound sentence members mutually (topic and focus). We can observe that the quantity of coreference and anaphoric relations and chains is not the same in the topic and focus parts of sentences.

The measurements are made on the large corpus data provided by the Prague Dependency Treebank 3.0. In the PDT data, the coreference and anaphoric relations and also sentence information structure are manually annotated – almost 50 thousand of annotated Czech sentences are available in PDT. For measurements, the PML Tree Query is used. This client server or the used methods of measurements can be applied also to similar research based on data of other corpora and other languages.

Bionote: Kateřina Rysová is a Senior Research Associate at the Institute of Formal and Applied Linguistics, Charles University in Prague. She finished her Ph.D. studies in linguistics at Charles University in Prague in 2013 (Ph.D. thesis: "On Word Order from the Communicative Point of View"). She is a team member of several national and international grants, e.g. COST – "Structuring Discourse in Multilingual Europe (TextLink)". Her main research interests are sentence information structure and discourse studies. She was the PI of an internal university grant (2011–2012) "Valency as a Word Order Factor" and has experience in creating and annotating corpora.

PAPER 3: Title: Terminological variation in multilingual parallel corpora: a semi-automatic method involving co-referential analysis

Speaker: Koen Kerremans, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

Abstract: The work presented in this article is part of a research study that focused on how terms and equivalents recorded in multilingual terminological databases can be extended with terminological variants and their translations retrieved from English source texts and their corresponding French and Dutch target texts (Kerremans 2014). For this purpose, a novel type of translation resource is proposed, resulting from a method for identifying terminological variants and their translations in texts. In many terminology approaches, terminological variants within and across languages are identified on the basis of semantic and/or linguistic criteria (Carreño Cruz 2008; Fernández-Silva et al. 2008). Contrary to such approaches, three perspectives of analysis were combined in Kerremans (2014) in order to build up the translation resource comprised of terminological variants and their translations. The first perspective is the semantic perspective, which means that units of specialised knowledge – or units of understanding (Temmerman 2000) – form the starting point for the analysis of term variation in the English source texts. The second perspective of analysis is the textual perspective, which implies that terminological variants pointing to a particular unit of understanding in a text are identified on the basis of their 'co-referential ties'. In the third perspective of analysis, which is the contrastive perspective, the French and Dutch translations of the English terms are extracted from the target texts. This approach is motivated by the fact that translators need to acquire a profound insight into the unit of understanding expressed in a source text before they can decide which equivalent to choose in the target language. In the framework of text linguistics, it has been shown how this can be achieved through the analysis of texts. A translator analyses the unit of understanding based on how it is expressed in the source texts (i.e. the semantic perspective), how its meaning is developed through the use of cohesive ties (i.e. the textual perspective) and how it can be rendered into the target language (i.e. the contrastive perspective). In this article, we shall only focus on how co-referential analysis was applied to the analysis of terminological variants in the source texts, resulting in lexical chains. These are "cohesive ties sharing the same referent, lexically rather than grammatically expressed" (Rogers 2007: 17). The terminological variants in these chains – which in this study were limited to only single word nouns or nominal expressions – become part of a general cluster of variants that were encountered in a collection of source texts. Several semi-automated modules were created in order to reduce the manual effort in the analysis of co-referential chains while ensuring consistency and completeness in the data. We will explain how the semi-automatic modules work and how these contribute to the development of the envisaged translation resource (cf. supra). We will also discuss what results can be derived from a co-referential analysis of terms and how these results can be used to quantitatively and qualitatively compare term variation between source and target texts.

Bionote: Koen Kerremans obtained his Master's degree in Germanic Philology at Universiteit Antwerpen in 2001, his Master's degree in Language Sciences - with a major in computational linguistics - at Universiteit Gent in 2002 and his PhD degree in Applied Linguistics at Vrije Universiteit Brussel in 2014. His research interests pertain to applied linguistics, language technologies, ontologies, specialised communication, terminology (variation) and translation studies. He is currently appointed as doctor-assistant at the department of Applied Linguistics (Faculty of Arts and Philosophy) of Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) where he teaches courses on applied linguistics, terminology and culture-specific communication.

PAPER 4:

Title: Cohesive chains in an English-German parallel corpus: Methodologies and challenges

Speaker: Kerstin Kunz, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski, Saarland University (Germany) and Stefania Degaetano-Ortlieb, Saarland University (Germany)

Abstract: The current paper discusses methodological challenges in analyzing cohesive relations with corpus-based procedures. It is based on research aiming at the comparison of English and German cohesion in written and spoken language and in originals and translations. For this objective, methodologies are developed that enable a fine-grained and precise analysis of different cohesive aspects in a representative corpus and that yield results for data interpretation within the duration of the project. Thus, methodologies have to be elaborate and cost effective at the same time.

We use an English-German comparable and parallel corpus which is pre-annotated on various grammatical levels and which has been enriched semi-automatically with information on cohesive devices of reference, conjunction, substitution and ellipsis. Our discussion will revolve around methodological challenges related to the current analysis of (1) co-reference and (2) lexical cohesion. The analysis of both types includes (a) identifying cohesive devices that function as explicit linguistic triggers (b) setting up a relation to the linguistic items with which they tie up (antecedents) and (c) integrating these ties into (longer) cohesive chains.

The methodological steps involved are the following:

1) Designing an annotation scheme. Main challenges revolve around the conceptual distinction of relations between instantiated co-reference and sense relations (lexical cohesion), the definition of categories that fit for a bilingual analysis, the inter-relatedness of chains, the depth of the ontological hierarchy and the distance between chain elements.

2) Designing semi-automatic annotation procedures. The challenge is to combine automatic pre-annotation and manual revision in a cost effective way. Our annotation of co-reference is based on the automatic extraction of reference devices, their manual revision and the manual annotation of chain relations (outputs of automatic co-reference tools were to error-prone for pre-annotation of coreference chains). For the annotation of lexical cohesion, we intend to proceed in a similar way. Sense relations and chains are pre-annotated using existing resources, e.g. WordNet, and revised by human annotators to obtain most precise results.

3) Extracting and analysing information. The challenge here is to extract data relevant for our research objective, i.e. information on chain length, distance between elements in chains in combination with morpho-syntactic preferences of chain elements, as well as on alignment of translational equivalents of cohesive relations. Moreover, appropriate statistical evaluation techniques have to be applied for interpretations in terms of language contrast and properties of translation. After demonstrating these methodologies on the basis of initial results, the presentation will end with a discussion of open questions. While our main aim is to design methodologies for a contrastive comparison of English and German on the level of text/ discourse, we hope to lay the ground for new paths in NLP and in machine translation, in particular. Furthermore, available alignments provide an insight into shifts in cohesion between source and target texts and the translation strategies applied.

Bionote: Kerstin Kunz holds an interim professorship at the Institute of Translation and Interpreting at Heidelberg University where she teaches in several BA and MA programs. She finished her PhD on English-German Nominal Coreference in 2009. She has been involved in various empirical research projects on properties of translations and English German contrasts on the level of lexicogrammar and discourse. Together with Erich Steiner, she currently has a corpus-based project at Saarland University. The GECCo project explores different types of cohesive relations in English and German, contrasting languages, originals and translations as well as written and spoken registers.

PAPER 5:

Title: Testing target text cohesion: An attempt at machine learning model to predict acceptability of sentence boundaries in English-Russian translation

Speaker: Andrey Kutuzov, Linguistic Lab on Corpus Technologies, Higher School of Economics (Moscow, Russia) and Maria Kunilovskaya, Tyumen State University (Russia)

Abstract: The results of our previous research based on a parallel learner corpus show that sentence splitting in English-Russian translation is not arbitrary and is most commonly used in particular syntactic conditions. The cases of splitting reflect both interlinguistic typological differences and translational regularities (explicitation, simplification), but it is impossible to say which factor is at play each time without further research. We have also shown that careless splitting can have negative effects on the target semantic and discourse structure. In this research we want to take a closer look shifts in sentence boundaries in translation, which we interpret as one of the factors reflecting text cohesion, and complement earlier findings with the results from multiple translations and comparable corpora analysis. By bringing together data from multiple parallel Russian Learner Translator Corpus and monolingual comparable corpora (purpose-built corpora of English and Russian essays) we hope to establish syntactic conditions under which splitting in translation is very likely for typological reasons (limited to the chosen genre). We will describe structural parameters of the expected TL discourse, in terms of discourse markers and other linguistic phenomena, such as sentence length, types of discourse relations between propositions, anaphora, etc. which motivate the start of a new sentence. One example of frequent discourse markers is 'and' conjunction, which seems to be unusual in the initial sentential position. But, as compared to Russian, it is typical for English to combine clauses with an interclausal ", and" or a semi-colon. These structures often undergo splitting in Russian translation, a new sentence being just juxtaposed or starting with the Russian conjunction 'И'. This proposal aims to establish the automated procedure to differentiate between typologically justified cases of sentence boundary change and those in which this shift has either "run away" or has not been used where appropriate, and it caused harm to the TT cohesion/coherence. To this end we plan to study the relation of various linguistic markers and the author's decision to start a new sentence in the TL (or to split one in the case of translation). We plan to employ both comparable and parallel corpora to guide us in establishing the said typological and, eventually, in building a machine learning model which describes the above mentioned relations in non-translated texts. Features of this model are sentence splitting markers, both lexical and syntactical, partly described in literature, partly extracted from the data itself. This model is applied to translated texts of the same genre. Cases of model failing to predict sentence boundaries in these texts are used to extract typical cohesion markers that correlate with erroneous sentence boundaries. Next, on the basis of these findings experts annotate a training parallel corpus, which will be used to build another model that is able to predict sentence boundaries mistakes as solutions that are not grounded in TL properties, but constitute translationese or incoherence/ambiguity. Thus, the outcome of the research is a machine learning model which, when applied to translated English-Russian texts, is able to detect cases of sentence boundaries incompatible or unusual as compared to non-translated TL.

Bionote: Andrey Kutuzov is a researcher and associate lecturer at National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia. This is also where he got his MA in Computational Linguistics after graduating from Linguistics department of Tyumen State University. He is a co-developer of Russian Learner Translator Corpus (http://rus-ltc.org) and Russian Error-Annotated Learner English Corpus (http://realec.org). Andrey interests lie in the fields of parallel corpora, translation studies, distributional semantics and applying machine learning to natural language processing. Andrey's papers and CV are available at his homepage: https://hse-ru.academia.edu/AndreyKutuzov.

SESSION 3: Aspects of Cohesion and Coherence in Human vs. Machine Translation

PAPER 6:

Title: Cohesion and Translation Variation: Corpus-based Analysis of Translation Varieties

Speaker: Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski, Saarland University (Germany)

Abstract: In this study, we analyse cohesion in 'translation varieties' - translation types or classes which differ in the translation methods or knowledge involved, e.g. human vs. machine translation (MT) or professional vs. novice. We expect variation in the distribution of different cohesive devices which occur in translations. Variation in translation can be caused by different factors, e.g. by systemic contrasts between source and target languages or different register settings, as well as ambiguities in both source and target languages. Thus, conjunction 'while' in the original sentence in (1a) is ambiguous between the readings 'during' and 'although'. The ambiguity is solved in (1b), but not in (1c), as the German 'während' is also ambiguous: (1a) My father preferred to stay in a bathrobe and be waited on for a change while he lead the stacks of newspapers [...] (1b) Mein Vater ist lieber im Bademantel geblieben und hat sich zur Abwechslung mal bedienen lassen und dabei die Zeitungsstapel durchgelesen [...] (1c) Mein Vater saß die ganze Zeit im Bademantel da und ließ sich zur Abwechslung bedienen, während er die Zeitungen laß [...]

English translations from German are less distinct and less register-dependent if compared to German translations from English. The variation in English-to-German translations strongly depends on register and devices of cohesion involved reflecting either shining-through or normalisation phenomena. Therefore, for our analysis, we chose a corpus of English-to-German translation varieties containing five subcorpora: translations 1) by professionals, 2) by students, 3) with a rule-based MT system, 4) with a statistical MT system trained with big data, 5) with a statistical MT system trained with small data.

Our first observations show that translation varieties differ in the distribution of cohesive devices. For example, novice translations contain more personal reference than the other translation, e.g. professional translators or a rule-based MT. Moreover, registers also differ in their preferences for cohesive devices, e.g. popular-science and instructions use the conjunctions während and dabei equally in German original texts. But tourism and political essays make more use of während than dabei. In professional translations, we observe the same tendency. In student translations, however, während is overused in most cases. The same tendency is observed for MT, where dabei sometimes does not occur at all.

So, we want to prove how cohesive devices reflect translation methods, the evidence of 'experience' (professional vs. novice or big data vs. small data), as well as registers involved in translation varieties under analysis. For this, we extract evidence for cohesive devices from the corpus and analyse the extracted methods with statistical techniques, applying unsupervised analysis to where the differences lie, and supervised techniques to find the features contributing to these differences. This knowledge is useful for both human translation and MT, e.g. in evaluation and MT improvement.

Bionote: Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski (Saarland University) is a post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Applied Linguistics, Translation and Interpreting. She finished her PhD on semi-automatic extraction and classification of language data at Institute for Natural Language Processing (Stuttgart) in 2010. Since then, she has been working in corpus-based projects related to language variation, language contrasts and translation, one of which is GECCo (http://www.gecco.uni-saarland.de/GECCo/Home.html). In 2012 she received a start-up research grant from the Saarland University to build resources for the analysis on variation in translation caused by different dimensions (register, translation method) resulting in translation varieties (including both human and machine translation).

PAPER 7:

Title: Exploring Discourse in Machine Translation Quality Estimation

Speaker: Carolina Scarton, University of Sheffield (UK) and Lucia Specia, University of Sheffield (UK)

Abstract: Discourse covers linguistic phenomena that can go beyond sentence boundaries and are related to text cohesion and coherence. Suitable elementary discourse units (EDUs) are defined depending on the level of analysis (paragraphs, sentences or clauses). Cohesion can be defined as a phenomenon where EDUs are connected using linguistics markers (e.g.: connectives). Coherence is related to the topic of the text and to the logical relationships among EDUs (e.g.: causality). A few recent efforts have been made towards including discourse information into machine translation (MT) systems and MT evaluation metrics. In our work, we address quality estimation (QE) of MT. This challenging task focuses on evaluating translation quality without relying on human references. Features extracted from examples of source and translation texts, as well as the MT system, are used to train machine learning algorithms in order to predict the quality of new, unseen translations.

The motivation for using discourse information for QE is threefold: (i) on the source side: identifying discourse structures (such as, connectives) or patterns of structures which are more complex to be translated, and therefore will most likely lead to low quality translations; (ii) on the target side: identifying broken or incomplete discourse structures, which are more likely to be found in low quality translations; (iii) comparing discourse structures on both source and target sides to identify not only possible errors, but also language peculiarities which are not appropriately handled by the MT system.

Since discourse phenomena can happen at document-level, we moved from the traditional sentence-level QE to document-level QE. Document-level QE is useful, for example, for evaluation in gisting scenarios, where the quality of the document as a whole is important so that the end-user can make sense of it. We have explored lexical cohesion for QE at document-level for English-Portuguese, Spanish-English and English-Spanish translations in two ways: (i) considering repetitions of words, lemmas and nouns, in both source and target texts; (ii) considering Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) cohesion. LSA is a method that can capture cohesive relations in a text, going beyond simple repetition counts. In our scenario, for each sentence, there is a word vector that represents it, considering all the words that appear in the document. Sentences are then compared based on their words vectors and sentences showing high similarity with most others are considered cohesive. Since LSA is language independent, it was applied on target and source texts. LSA cohesion features improved the results over a strong baseline.

Our next step is to move to the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) to capture coherence phenomena. On the source side, RST trees will be extracted and we will correlate the occurrence (or not) of the discourse structures (e.g.: Nucleous, Satellite or relations type, such as Attribution) with the quality labels. The same will be applied on the target side, where incorrect discourse units are expected to correlate better with low quality translations.

Bionote: Carolina Scarton is a PhD candidate and Marie Curie Early Stage Researcher (EXPERT project) at The University of Sheffield, working in the Natural Language Processing group on the Department of Computer Science, under supervision of Dr. Lucia Specia. Her research focuses on the use of discursive information for quality estimation of machine translations. She received a master's degree from University of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2013, where she worked at the Interinstitutional Center for Computational Linguistics (NILC).

PAPER 8:

Title: Examining Lexical Coherence in a Multilingual Setting

Speaker: Karin Sim Smith, University of Sheffield (UK) and Lucia Specia (University of Sheffield)

Abstract: Discourse has long been recognised as a crucial part of translation, but when it comes to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT), discourse information has been mostly neglected to date, as the decoders in SMT tend to work on a sentence by sentence basis. Our research concerns a study of lexical coherence, an issue that has not yet been exploited in the context of SMT. We explore an entity-based discourse framework, applying it for the first time in a multilingual context, aiming to: (i) examine whether human- authored texts offer different patterns of entities compared to (potentially incorrect) machine translated texts, and a version of the latter fixed by humans, and (ii) understand how this discourse phenomenon is realised across languages.

Entity distribution patterns are derived from entity grids or entity graphs. Entity grids are constructed by identifying the discourse entities in the documents under consideration, and constructing a 2D grids whereby each column corresponds to the entity, i.e. noun, being tracked, and each row represents a particular sentence in the document. Alternatively these can be projected on a bipartite graph where the sentences and entities form nodes, and the connections are the edges.

For the monolingual experiments, we use a corpus comprising three versions of the same documents: the human translation, the raw machine translation output and the post-edited version of the machine translation output, establishing whether any differences in lexical coherence may be due to the nature of the texts, as well as to potential errors in the machine translated version. We observed some trends in our monolingual comparative experiments on versions of translations, indicating that some patterns of differences between human translated and machine translated texts can be expected. We also applied the entity-based grid framework in a multilingual context, to parallel texts in English, French, and German. The goals are to understand differences in lexical coherence across languages, and in the future to establish whether this can be used as a means of ensuring that the same level of lexical coherence is transferred from the source to the machine translated documents.

We observed distinct patterns in our comparative multilingual approach: we discovered that the probabilities for different types of entity transitions varied, indicating a different coherence structure in the different languages. In this instance we are comparing the same texts, on a document by document basis, so the same genre and style, yet there is a clear and consistent difference in the probabilities. This would appear to indicate, amongst other things, that the manner in which lexical coherence is achieved varies from language to language. Besides establishing the worth of these features independently, we will also do so in the context of MT evaluation, and our ultimate goal is to then integrate them in an SMT model, in the hope that they will manage to exert influence in the decoding process and improve overall text coherence.

Bionote: Karin Sim Smith is currently in her 2nd year PhD at the Computer Science Department of Sheffield University, where she is part of the Modist project (Modelling Discourse in Machine Translation), which aims to improve discourse in Machine Translation. Specifically, she is researching ways to improve the coherence of SMT output, hoping to learn the coherence patterns that can be transferred from source to target text.

WRAP-UP SESSION (20 Minutes)

 

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 18:30

Tracing Self-Translation : discursive perspectives in context
Maud Gonne, University of Leuven, Belgium
Klaartje Merrigan, University of Leuven, Belgium
Reine Meylaerts, University of Leuven, Belgium 
Katarzyna Szymanska, University of Oxford, UK

Once known as a marginal field of study, self-translation has recently attracted a considerable amount of scholarly interest. Current theories vacillate between opposing understandings of self-translation, depending on whether the focal point consists of the self-translator as a unique, 'privileged agent of transfer' (Tanqueiro 1999), or of the self-translated text as the result of an act of re-writing, and thus essentially no different from any other text that is reshaped or 'fragmented' in view of a new readership (Lefevere 1992, Bassnett 2013). The focus on the agency of the self-translator has led to passionate pleas to 'move beyond Beckett' in order to place reflections on self-translation in a broader sociological framework of a competing world system of languages (Grutman 2013). Theoretical reflections on the self-translated text have, in turn, defined the latter as a complex cultural artifact which constantly questions binary oppositions underlying key-concepts of translation studies (Cordingley 2013).

Nevertheless, current approaches tend to neglect the specificity of the self-translation process, which implies a cross-fertilization between writing, translating, reading and often re-writing between languages as well as an act of world-construction across languages. While self-translators are often exceptional 'cultural brokers', they are also the creators of complex literary scenographies, which necessarily bear the traces of the multilingual enunciative conditions out of which they emerge. By focusing on literary scenographies, this panel aims to extend current research on bilingualism within linguistic theories of discourse by reflecting on the ramifications of the 'bilingual condition' on the literary discourse of self-translating authors. The term scenography, as introduced by Maingueneau (2004) refers here to the narrative scene constructed in a fictional text, which reflects and legitimate the genre in which it partakes and in turn influences the 'image' of the author perceived as the creator of that particular scenography. In the case of literary self-translation, we believe these scenographies need to be linked to (i) the specific language(s) in which they are written and (ii) the complex author-translator status of the writer who created them.

The purpose of this panel is therefore to study self-translation as both a translational and literary activity, with highly complex modes of interaction which can be traced discursively. Concretely, we aim to (1)open up new methodological questions on how translation strategies between versions can be linked to narrative and/or discursive structures which concur across versions (2)study the continuities (and not only the dissimilarities) between versions and analyze how these deepen or problematize the relationship between a given literary scenography and its double context of reception.

Possible research questions are:

- Are there recurring topoi, stereotypes, discursive strategies within the self-translated text/discourse? What kind of discursive 'traces' (narration, voice, time, space, ...) emerge out of the conditions from which self-translators write?

- Is it possible to speak of a self-translating 'ethos', at once inscribing itself in authorial and translational discourses?

- To what extend does self-translation constitute a meta-literary or meta-translational practice? Can it be analyzed as the (self-)translator's comment on either the original or translation process?

For informal enquiries: [maudDOTgonneATartsDOTkuleuvenDOTbe]

picture MaudGonne

Maud Gonne isa PhD student in Translation Studies at the University of Leuven, Belgium. Her current research interest concerns the role of intercultural mediators in the process of cultural nation building. She is preparing a doctoral dissertation on the forms and functions of intercultural and interlingual transfer activities by the writer-translator Georges Eekhoud (1854-1927) within Belgium and between Belgium and France (https://lirias.kuleuven.be/cv?u=U0058694).

pasfoto klaartje

 

Klaartje Merrigan is a research fellow of the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (FWO) at the University of Leuven, Belgium. Her current research interest concerns the practice of literary self-translation in twentieth-century Canadian and French literature. She is preparing a doctoral dessertation on the literary works of Nancy Huston between 1948-2002. She is also a member of the research group 'Multilingualism, Translation, Creation', of the Institut des Textes et Manuscrits modernes (UMR CNRS/ENS) (https://lirias.kuleuven.be/cv?u=U0085898).

 

 

 

picture ReineMeylaerts

Reine Meylaerts (KU Leuven) is Professor of Comparative Literature and director of CETRA (Centre for Translation Studies; http://www.arts.kuleuven.be/cetra) at KU Leuven. Her current research interests concern the theory, methodology and historiography of intercultural relationships in multilingual societies. She is the author of numerous articles and chapters on these topics (https://lirias.kuleuven.be/items-by-author?author=Meylaerts%2C+Reinhilde%3B+U0031976). She is review editor of Target. International Journal of Translation Studies and coordinator of 2011-2014: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN: TIME: Translation Research Training: An integrated and intersectoral model for Europe. She is former Secretary General (2004-2007) of the European Society for Translation Studies (EST) and Chair of the Doctoral Studies Committee of EST.

 

picture KatarzynaSzymanzka

Katarzyna Szymańska (Universiry of Oxford) is a PhD student in Medieval and Modern Languages at the University of Oxford, UK. Funded by Rawnsley Graduate Scholarship (St Hugh's College), her project focuses on the concept of meta-translation in contemporary translations of poetry across English, German and Polish. She is also a postgraduate representative of British Comparative Literature Association (http://www.torch.ox.ac.uk/katarzyna-szymanska).

 

 

 

SESSION PLAN

Each paper is allocated with a 20 minutes time slot + 10 minutes discussion.

Discussion time at the end of each session

INTRODUCTION (20 min)

Title: Tracing Self-Translation: discursive perspectives in context

Speakers: Klaartje Merrigan, University of Leuven, Belgium and Katarzyna Szymanska, University of Oxford, UK.

SESSION 1: Negotiating the Self in Self-Translation

PAPER 1:

Title: Traces of memory and metaphor in the self-translated text:

Skinned by Antjie Krog

Speaker: Frances Antoinette Vosloo, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Abstract:

Skinned (2013), South African bilingual author and poet Antjie Krog's most recent poetry volume in English translation, includes a section entitled 'becomings'. The section comprises of eight poems originating from a poetry caravan across Senegal and Mali which Krog attended together with African poets and griots. In her narrative fictional book(s) A change of tongue (2003) and its translation into Afrikaans, 'n Ander tongval (2005), Krog recreates the landscape of poetry with which she engaged as Afrikaans mother tongue speaker during the travels to Timbuktu. Her narrative account is interspersed with translated poems of her own and of the African writers. The eight poems in Skinned represent a process of re-vision, opening up a space (through the text) where culture and language come to signify a multiplicity and diversity of creative origin.

Using Lionnet's (1989) interpretation of the term métissage, the poems in Skinned and A change of tongue are read as textual spaces characterized by stratifications of diverse language and cultural systems. These texts, specifically Skinned, represents a site or a space of métissage on more than one level: In her recollection of the words and poems of some of the African poets, Krog shapes these words into Afrikaans, her mother tongue, as part of a process of translation as comprehension (read understanding and knowledge); the comprehended poetry is represented in 'n Ander tongval, only to be translated later into English in the book A change of tongue (which was published before the Afrikaans version), and 'retranslated' as 'complete' poems in Skinned. Interweaved in these poems are Krog's own poetry – fragments of existing as well as new poems that originated during the poetry caravan. In the process of retranslation and the creation of different or differing versions, Krog adopts a rhizomatic translational identity, reflecting her socioideological horizons.

This paper explores the interlocking traces of memory, metaphor and identity by following the modes of interaction and conditions underlying the creation of these poems. Following Nouss's (2007) take on métissage within the frame of translation, Skinned is interpreted as a meaningful vector and index of the historicity of not only Krog's process of translation, but also the African origin of her texts. The poems stand as both textual and oral traces of the past – as spaces of memory constructed through the interreferential nature of the texts themselves.

Bionote:

Dr. Franci Vosloo is a postdoctoral fellow in Translation Studies at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. The title of her PhD was "Om te skryf deur te vertaal en te vertaal deur te skryf: Antjie Krog as skrywer/vertaler" (Writing through translating and translating through writing: Antjie Krog as writer/translator". With degrees in Archaeology and Translation Studies, her research interests include the sociology of translation, self-translation and translation as abjection.

PAPER 2:

Title: Self-translation and Narration in Rolando Hinojosa's Klail City Death Trip Series

Speaker: Marlene Hansen Esplin, Brigham Young University, USA

Abstract:

I examine the question of narration and how it both shapes and develops in the Spanish and English novels that constitute Mexican-American author and self-translator Rolando Hinojosa's Klail City Death Trip series. Through the course of this series of fifteen interconnected novels, Hinojosa frequently recurs to the device of an active, self-referential, and sardonic narrator who both colludes with and playfully jeers at the other narrative voices. I argue that the narrator's interpolations reflect Hinojosa's own internal negotiations as an author and translator who displays and interrogates Anglo, Mexican, and Mexican-American identities in the linguistically ambivalent space or scenography of South Texas, Hinojosa's Klail City or the larger Belken County. This recurring narrative voice enables Hinojosa to foreground or make "visible" the translation processes that are otherwise understated in his multilingual oeuvre and to lend authorial credence and coherence to the stories and many voices that make up his extensive narrative project.

I ask if the narrator's constant interpolations and humorous asides can be considered part of a larger "ethos" of self-translation and if, through the similar but disparate Spanish and English versions of a number of the novels in the series, Hinojosa creates an inter-textual reading project that is decidedly bilingual and transnational. The spaces between the versions of his novels reiterate his role as translator and self-translator and evidence ways in which Hinojosa, like his meddlesome narrator, both mediates among and causes trouble for the other characters and/or narrative voices who animate his series.

The meta-narrative of the Klail City series engages both the problems and possibilities of self-translation in the context of the borderlands between Texas and Mexico. This paper is part of a future chapter of a current book project entitled Spanish, English, and In-Between: Self-Translation in the U.S. and Latin America, in which I examine incidences of several U.S. Latino/a and/or Latin American authors who write Spanish and English versions of their texts.

Bionote:

Marlene is an Assistant Professor of Humanities at Brigham Young University with a PhD in Hispanic Cultural Studies from Michigan State University. Her research focuses mainly on how problems of translation or rewriting create intersections between U.S. and Latin American literatures. Her current book project concerns U.S. and Latin American "self-translators" who write Spanish and English versions of their texts. Other projects include a book chapter on how shifts in translating by bilingual authors such as Rosario Ferré, Margarita Cota-Cárdenas, and María Luisa Bombal reflect ambivalences surrounding a feminist identity and an article discussing heteroglossia in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Americanah.

PAPER 3:

Title: Self-translator as Chameleon

Speaker: Tomoko Takahashi, Soka University of America, USA

Abstract:

In this study, I examine the process of self-translation that I have experienced translating my autobiography from Japanese to English, focusing on the fundamental link between the acts of translation and narration. The main question asked here is: What is the self-translation process like when the translator is also the author, narrator, and protagonist, as in the case of my autobiographical translation, Samurai and Cotton? This study is unique in that the process of self-translation is examined by the author-translator herself (i.e., myself). Moreover, the story, being autobiographical in nature and narrated by the translingual writer and protagonist, serves as metanarrative providing clues about the author-translator's psyche as she transitions through geographical, cultural, and linguistic changes.

Translation is a communicative act, in which the translator tries to achieve purposes, one of which is to communicate across languages with the intended addressees—the target audience. Narration, too, is a communicative act, in which a narrator produces a narrative discourse or text intended for her/his target audience. In works of fiction, the narrator and the author are not necessarily coterminous, but in the case of self-translated autobiographical narratives, such as mine, the author, who is the protagonist by definition, serves as the first-person narrator as well as the translator. As in the case of Samurai and Cotton, when the roles of the author, first-person narrator, protagonist, and translator are coterminous (thus used interchangeably in this study), the translation of the narrative needs to be examined from multiple communicative perspectives, which involve, for instance, the narrator-translator's perceptions of the new target audience, the events and participants described in the story, etc. Although the narrator remains constant throughout the story, her/his role and tone may change as the story develops, events occur, stages shift, and different participants come and go, which in turn influence the narrator-translator as well.

Self-translation is a complex process, and it becomes even more so when the author-narrator serves as a historian, family biographer, autobiographer, and nostalgic storyteller. The geographical and temporal stages in Samurai and Cotton shift dramatically from the world of the samurai and the collapse of feudalism, to postwar and modern Japan, and to the US, covering the time span of more than 150 years, with two different cultures being juxtaposed. The narrator-translator's psyche surfs through different phases and events as the translation work progresses through different stages of the story told in the book. In this study, therefore, I examine the process of self-translation in light of the narrator's roles and persona—or "colors"—that change according to the time, events, and participants as well as the audience and the language, focusing on the chameleon-like style-shifting by the narrator-translator in self-translation.

Bionote:

Tomoko Takahashi is the Dean of the Graduate School and Professor of Linguistics and Education at Soka University of America in Southern California. She holds a doctorate in applied linguistics from Columbia University. Her research interests include second language acquisition, particularly lexico-semantic transfer and pragmatic transfer, cross-cultural communication, and translation theory. Takahashi's research has been widely published and cited in scholarly journals and books in the field of applied linguistics. She is also a well-respected translator of Japanese and English.

SESSION 2: Beyond Self-translation

PAPER 4:

Title: Israel Zangwill: translator and (self-)translator from Hebrew and Yiddish into English

Speaker: Denise Merkle, Université de Moncton, Canada

Abstract:

This paper will contribute to research on self-translation by studying the case of Israel Zangwill, the son of East End London immigrants. Zangwill earned a B.A. in English and French in the 1880s, in addition to learning the two traditional languages of the Jewish community: Yiddish and Hebrew. His mastery of Hebrew enabled him to translate competently Hebrew poetry into English; however, Zangwill was not primarily a translator. Rather, he was a successful author, well integrated into English cultural and literary circles. Yet, some of his writings were more controversial, in particular his self-translations that incorporated linguistic hybridity to varying degrees.

To understand the power dynamics that influenced Zangwill's (self-)translation decisions and strategies, the paper will refer to polysystem theory as well as to Bourdieu-inspired sociological approaches to translation that consider issues of (authorized) language and power. This theoretical framework will underpin the analysis of, in particular, Zangwill's Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People, as an example of self-translation. It was written as a realistic socio-linguistic portrait of the linguistic hybridity that marked the East End Jewish community, and it became the first Anglo-Jewish best-seller to present the spiritual crisis that London's assimilated Jewish community was facing. Zangwill wished that his Jewish roots be known and was keenly aware of "'asymmetric' linguistic configurations" (Grutman 2013) between English and poor immigrant languages (e.g. Polish, Russian and Yiddish), that did not enjoy the same symbolic capital English did. At the beginning of the 1890s,the Jewish Publication Society of America (JPSA) was looking for a Jewish Robert Elsmere and asked Zangwill to produce an English version based on London's East End for Jewish Americans, in addition to British Jews. However, to reproduce the linguistic diversity of the community he was forced to choose between writing a linguistically hybrid text or

(self-)translating immigrant languages, in particular Yiddish and Hebrew.

Israel Zangwill belonged to a traditional linguistic minority (Grutman 2013: 188), was multilingual and "well read in more than one literary tradition" (ibid.: 193). The paper will examine examples of (self-)translation strategies in Children of the Ghetto, and compare them to strategies retained by Zangwill in earlier works as well as to examples of self-translation between conventional British and Jewish cultures in his daily life in order to come to a clearer understanding of his status as a (self-)translator. By cultural self-translation, we refer to Zangwill's negotiations between British (dominant) and Jewish (minority) cultures in London.

Like Oscar Wilde's French original Salome, Children of the Ghetto has no source text, Zangwill self-translating between Hebrew/Yiddish and English while putting pen to paper. While Wilde, Kafka and Huston, among other translator/writers have been abundantly studied, Zangwill's works have not yet attracted the attention of Translation Studies scholars. As such, analyzing this case study will add new research to the literature on self-translation.

Bionote:

Denise Merkle teaches translation at the Université de Moncton, Canada. She publishes on the translating subject, censorship and translation, and official translation/translators. Her articles have been published in various journals (e.g. Babel, TransCanadiana , TTR) and collected volumes (e.g. Agents of Translation, ed. J. Milton and P. Bandia; Translation Effects, ed. K. Mezei, S. Simon, L. von Flotow; Traduction et censure, ed. M. Ballard). She has edited or co-edited journal issues (TTR, Alternative francophone, the latter with A. Klimkiewicz) and collected volumes (e.g. The Power of the Pen with C. O'Sullivan, L. van Doorslaer and M. Wolf).

PAPER 5:

Title: The Dynamics of Translation and Self-Translation in Angela Carter's Fiction, or the Magic of Foreign Words

Speaker: Martine Hennard Dutheil de la Rochère, University of Lausanne, Switzerland

This paper has been withdrawn from the panel by the speaker.

PAPER 6:

Title: Ethnographies and Autoethnographies as Self-Translations: The Case of 19th Century Writings in Spanish and Mapudungun

Speaker: Gertrudis Payas, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile

Abstract:

The late 20th century saw the realization in the disciplines of anthropology and ethnography that most narratives of so-called "primitive" cultures based on oral accounts gathered by Western scholars to help understand such cultures had to be viewed as representations created by the practitioners themselves and hence reflected their biases and prejudices. This acknowledgement characterized the ensuing "crisis of representation" that affected historical and anthropological studies (Marcus and Fisher 1986). In general terms, postcolonial translation studies can be described as a consequence of this turning point (Carbonell 1997; Bassnett &Trivedi 1999).

Applying these concepts to the analysis of translated ethnographic texts, Kate Sturge (2005) observed that ethnographers are often unaware of translation as a method for understanding and representing cultures, and argues that most ethnographic narratives obtained by eliciting information from informants and textualizing it in their language can be considered as originals, created and formatted by the ethnographer himself, before subsequent translation The ethnographer can thus be regarded as both the author of the original, creating the text in the indigenous language and preparing it for translation, and of the subsequent translation, meaning that such authors can arguably be regarded as self-translators, as well as target readers.

However, on other occasions it is the native informant who textualizes oral accounts in his own language using the ethnographer's method, and translates them into the ethnographer's language. Pratt terms these texts autoethnographic (1991), and in this case it is even clearer that the process is one of self-translation.

The language of Chile's native Mapuche, Mapudungun, was first described by the Spanish Jesuit missionaries during Spanish colonial rule in the 16th and 17th centuries, although it was not until the late 19th century, after Chile had declared independence, that the first modern descriptions and systematizations of Mapudungun were undertaken. Rudolf Lenz, a German philologist residing in Chile, published a series of studies in which he presented and commented on a collection of oral narratives and lists of phrases compiled during his field trips with the help of informants who also collaborated in the translation. One of these indigenous collaborators, Manuel Manquilef, took it upon himself to publish similar material, using the same method and translation strategies as the philologist but introducing literary features that enhanced the text in Spanish. Manquilef's literary embellishments attracted severe criticism from Lenz.

This presentation will examine the relevance of parody and other literary tropes when considering the translation strategies used in these self-translations and discuss the discourse on translation and the indigenous language that is explicitly or implicitly proposed by both Lenz and Manquilef's texts, together with the role of translation at the intersection of poetics and ideology.

Bionote:

Gertrudis Payàs is lecturer in Translation and Interpreting at the Languages and Translation Department of the Universidad Católica de Temuco. She is a member of a research group on intercultural studies (Núcleo de Estudios Interétnicos e Interculturales) and of the Alfaqueque Research Group at the Universidad de Salamanca. Her research focuses on the history of translation and interpretation in Hispanic America, with an emphasis on their cultural functions. This presentation is part of the Fondecyt Research Project: "Translation and interpretation during the period 1814–1930 in the Araucanian frontier as a means of revealing the dynamics of recognition" (Chile, 2011-2014).

SESSION 3: Double Belongings and Role Shifting

PAPER 7:

Title: Self-translation, textual role-shiftingness and cross-fertilisation in the works by Marco Micone

Speaker: Cecilia Foglia, University of Montreal, Canada

Abstract:

In the article entitled "History and the Self-translator" (2013), Jan Hokenson maintains that a large amount of translative activity has been prompted by four main historical drives. These are the foundation of political states, post-colonialism, religious reform movements and diasporas (such as exile and migration). Such immense translative activity, as she claims, includes an important subgroup, that of self-translation and self-translators, which needs to be investigated more deeply. In line with Hokenson's call, our presentation will focus on the case study represented by Marco Micone and his peculiar activity as a migrant self-translator.

Born in Italy in 1945, he migrates to Quebec (Canada) to escape poverty. Micone is a polyvalent individual. Not only has he extensively written, translated, adapted and self-translated for the stage, he has also played a politically pivotal role within the Italian migrant community of Quebec by supporting the adoption of a multicultural and plurilingual politics. Despite being an Italian native speaker, Micone has always written his plays in French, and translated/adapted for the stage from English or Italian into French. His name has thus seldom crossed the ocean to reach his homeland. Nevertheless, the chance to be published in Italian arrives when he agrees to self-translate his theatrical trilogy for Cosmo Iannone Editore, a small publishing house interested in translating into Italian the works of Italian migrant writers living abroad.

To investigate Micone's self-translations, we have adopted the socio-graphical approach, which is a theoretical model stemming from Bourdieu's (1993) concept of "genetic sociology". This approach aims at uncovering Micone's personal writing and translatorial dispositions within a national and social system. In other words, this model does not prioritise sociological subjects over the context or vice versa. It rather investigates them as interdependent forces that mutually influence and affect the cultural product. The application of such a model to Micone's self-translations has brought about some preliminary results. While self-translating from French into Italian, and after having self-translated literally the first four scenes of his first play, Micone decides to rewrite the rest of the trilogy. Fascinated by the way the Italian language reshapes and revitalises his plays, Micone drastically decides to put the source texts of his trilogy originally written in French in the '80s aside. Thus, the self-translations into Italian become the "new source texts" of the trilogy he will then self-translate into French, too. We refer here to an exceptional textual role-shiftingness triggered by a linguistic and cultural change.

Micone's unique experience as self-translator has inspired the following research questions: since his textual role-shiftingness appears to be an attempt to blur the frontiers between original creation and translation, is self-translation not a final result but a "meta-writing-practice" capable of cross-fertilising various cultural fields, leaving a mark on them and eventually generating some features of its own? Can self-translation help us understand how multilingual migrant agents perceive interculturality? How can TS benefit from studying self-translation (and self-translators) especially in its variant of migration?

Bionote:

Cecilia Foglia received her BA in Foreign Languages, Literature and Culture, and her MA in Modern Euro-American Languages and Literature from the University of Macerata (Italy). She is currently writing a Ph.D thesis at the University of Montreal (Canada), where she also works as research assistant and teaching assistant of Italian. Her interests include the sociology of translation, cultural translation and migration literature in translation. Her doctoral research focuses on the literary production and trajectory of Marco Micone, an Italian writer, adapter, translator and self-translator who migrated to Québec after World War II.

PAPER 8:

Title: A Poet Who Can Be Only Read in Translation...:

Czesław Miłosz as self-translator in the context of his practice of cultural mediation

Speaker: Magda Heydel, Jagiellonian University, Poland

Abstract:

Czesław Miłosz is a pivotal figure in the Polish-American cultural mediation. He combined the roles of writer, anthologizer, journalist, commentator, translator and self-translator. His original writing shows traces of interaction with the literary environment he inhabited after the war. He opened channels of communication between the two cultures; what is now known as "the Polish School of Poetry" stemmed from his translations of Polish poetry; he also became a self-translator, carefully managing his bilingual output.

Although defining himself decidedly as a Polish poet, Miłosz was aware of the role the English versions of his work played in creating the image of himself as a writer and of the canon of contemporary Polish poetry. The aim of my paper is to look at Miłosz's self-translations as a case in designing the cross-cultural mediation (Pym 1998; Milton, Bandia 2009, Cordingley 2013). I want to look at Miłosz's complex status as a writer displaced from his native environment, to study the web of interconnections between his writing in Polish and the shape it took in English, as well as the inspirations he found in English-language literature. The status of his self-translated work is ambivalent in perspective of both his self definition as a writer and the practice of cultural mediation he was engaged in. The case of Miłosz as self-translator will let me answer questions regarding the relationships established in the course of the cross-cultural mediation not only on the extra-textual level but also on a deeper level of text construction and poetics. Both differences and equivalences between the bilingual versions display the construction of the inter-space which emerges through (self-)translation between the two world-views and world-images of the two languages. By problematizing the complex position of the author-translator I intend to describe dimensions of the space "in-between" (Pym 1998, Koster 2002) which is practically non-divisible into the original and the translated.

I have written on Miłosz as translator (Heydel 2013; Heydel 2007) and edited a volume of his translations into Polish (Miłosz 2005). I was also granted a fellowship at Beinecke Library (Sept-Oct2014) to study Miłosz's manuscripts there. Reading his notebooks and letters from the American years, let me look deeper into the mediation processes he initiated and to understand the causative mechanisms behind the making of his (self)translations.

Bionote:

Magda Heydel PhD hab., teaches translation and comparative literature at the Department of Polish Studies, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland. She is the head of the Postgraduate Programme in Literary Translation at the Jagiellonian and editor-in-chief of a translation studies journal Przekładaniec. Her publications include T.S. Eliot in Polish Literature (2003) and Role of Translation in Czesław Miłosz's Oeuvre (2013). She co-edited anthologies of contemporary translation studies (2009) and Polish concepts in translation studies (2012). She is an award winning translator of English language literature, e.g. Joseph Conrad, T.S. Eliot, Ted Hughes, Seamus Heaney and Virginia Woolf.

SESSION 4: Self-Translation at the Crossroads of Multilingual Practices

PAPER 9:

Title: A traceable hybrid process : simultaneous self-translation in a popular serial novel

Speaker: Maud Gonne, University of Leuven, Belgium

Abstract:

Literary self-translation is currently seen as a (post-)modern expression of a globalized world. Inter-lingual rewriting and intertwining between translation and writing seem to constitute a new literary phenomenon attributed to hybrid and bilingual writers "having been born across the world" : the "translated men" (Rushdie, 1991:16).

Nevertheless, bilingualism is far from being a new element in literature and the desire – or necessity – to direct a text to two readerships has been a secular practice (cfr. Hokenson & Munson) especially in heterogeneous and multilingual cultural spaces.

As such, in early twentieth century Belgium, in spite of the growing tensions between the two historical linguistic communities, self-translation into Dutch (Flemish) and French was a common activity, particularly for less literary genres (popular novels, chronicles, art critics). For example, under the pseudonym of Gabriël d'Estrange(s), the consecrated Flemish writer Georges Eekhoud (1854-1927) wrote four serial novels, existing in two linguistic versions, which circulated more or less simultaneously in weekly deliveries between 1897 and 1904.Constrained by time, by the editing house guidelines and by the necessity to write fast and in quantity, rather than in quality, the self-translator conveniently changed the directionality of the self-translation process various times, effectively blurring the borders between original and translation.

As a result, in this process of (nearly) simultaneous self-translation, interaction between writing and translating, as well as both adapting (from theater) and plagiarizing become sources of creativity. Both versions cross-fertilize each to create an hybrid scenography that reflects and negotiates a complex and conflictual enunciation context via a.o. (1) a multilingual scenography and the use of heterolingualisms (Grutman, 1997), (2) a dialogue between the writing and translating agencies (3) characters as translator or interpret who mediate within a manichean story (4) a paratopical narrator voice (Maingueneau 2004).

Taking as an illustration one of the four bilingual novels of Gabriel d'Estrange(s), i.e., The Brussels street singer [De Brusselsche straatzanger/Le chanteur de rues bruxellois] (1897-1898), the aim of this paper is (1) to analyze the discursive traces, or textual inscriptions, left in the production process of this bilingual text (2) to discuss a few features for a poetic of self-translation.

Bionote:

Maud Gonne is a Ph.D. student in Translation Studies at the University of Leuven. She is working on the relation between intercultural transfer activities, including self-translation and multilingual writing, and cultural nation building. Her research project focuses on the hybrid actors that embody those transfers and the way they simultaneously assume different (literary) roles. She is the author of various articles on that topic: https://lirias.kuleuven.be/cv?u=U0058694. Her research interests are literary (self-)translations and cultural transfers in border regions, intercultural relationships, discourse analysis, Descriptive translation studies and Actor Network Theories.

PAPER 10:

Title: Cross-fertilization between self-translation and other writing practices in interwar bilingual Belgium

Speakers: Reine Meylaerts, University of Leuven, Belgium

Tessa Lobbes, Utrecht University, Netherlands

Abstract:

In this paper, we want to study the complex cross-fertilization between self-translation, translation, multilingual writing and collaborative writing developed by two important bilingual (Flemish-French) cultural mediators in early twentieth century Belgium, Paul-Gustave Van Hecke (1887-1967) and André De Ridder (1888-1961). Van Hecke and De Ridder need to be studied together. First of all because of their joint activities as founders and editors in chief of the Flemish periodicals De Boomgaard (1909), Het Roode Zeil (1920) and of the Francophone periodical Sélection (1920), secondly because of their common writing practices and finally because of their concerted efforts in favor of Flemish art and literature in both Flemish and Francophone publications. Our corpus will consist of published novels, essays, chronicles and critiques, but also of unpublished letters and manuscripts which gives us insight into the concrete practices of self-translation.

In the context of a linguistically conflicted Belgium, it is fascinating to scrutinize how Van Hecke and De Ridder practiced and used self-translation and to examine when, why and how they switched between languages and how they connected these practices to other literary and artistic mediating activities. Since the origin of Belgium in 1830, a national culture was never self-evident. In the aftermath of World War I, Van Hecke and De Ridder witnessed a number of seemingly opposite developments within Belgium. Rising patriotism in the immediate postwar years went together with an intensification of regionalism. Especially Flemish groups were lobbying for Flemish cultural and linguistic emancipation which increased tensions between the two language groups. At the same time, a firm internationalism was politically visible in the creation of the League of Nations and culturally in the international humanism as defended by Romain Rolland in his Déclaration d'Indépendance de l'esprit [Declaration of the Independence of the Spirit] (1919), uniting some thousand writers worldwide. Both Van Hecke's and De Ridder's multilingual and collaborative writing practices had a regional, a national and an international dimension, in dialectically interacting and evolving combinations.

By examining Van Hecke and De Ridder, we aim to show how self-translation should be studied first of all in relation to other writing and mediating practices, secondly in terms of continuities between versions and finally in relation to the production and reception contexts. In other words, we aim to analyze if and how the cross-fertilization between translating, self-translating, multilingual writing and collaborative writing as well as the evolution of the relationships between them is instrumental to understand Van Hecke's and De Ridder's textual universes and their contribution to the construction of a changing (sub-)national and international culture in early twentieth century Belgium.

Bionotes:

Dr. Tessa Lobbes works as a postdoctoral researcher at Utrecht University within a HERA-project on cultural exchanges during the First World War. She is writing a book on the confrontation between 'neutral' Dutch writers and foreign cultural propaganda services. Prof. dr. Reine Meylaerts works at the Translation Studies research unit of the University of Leuven. She is an expert in the field of intercultural relationships and translation strategies in past and present multilingual societies.

PAPER 11:

Title: Tracing self-translation and bilingual writing: the case of André Brink

Speaker: Lelanie de Roubaix, Stellenbosch University, South-Africa

Abstract:

The proposed paper will focus on André Brink, acclaimed South African author who has been creating Afrikaans and English versions of his novels since he first self-translated one of his own novels in 1974. Brink's creative practice has evolved over time – starting from only writing in Afrikaans, to self-translating his Afrikaans novels into English, to creating simultaneously the Afrikaans and English versions of each work. In interviews, Brink has qualified this latter process, saying that he goes back and forth between the two versions while he writes them, letting one version influence the other and making changes to both as he continues. This process of writing two linguistic versions of his novels simultaneously is not only a unique creative practice, but a practice that results in texts that are interesting and challenging to study.

In Brink's case, simultaneously writing two versions of a novel in two languages has become part of his creative process. Whether one chooses to situate this practice within the framework of self-translation, or places it in a broader category of rewriting (cf. Bassnett 2013), the texts resulting from this creative act provide valuable insight into the phenomenon of simultaneous bilingual writing itself, as well as into the creative literary practices of their creator.

The proposed paper will trace the evolution of Brink's creative literary practices, namely from self-translation to simultaneous bilingual writing, by studying examples from texts created by these different practices. By comparing the two linguistic versions of novels that were self-translated with linguistic versions of novels that were written bilingually, I aim to trace the voice of the author in different versions of the text by focusing not only similarities and differences between two versions of a single novel, but also similarities and differences between "self-translations" and "bilingual creations". Focusing on the texts themselves and linking the discussion of examples back to the practices that were used to create them, I aim to consider not only the translational or literary activity that gave rise to the texts, but also the linguistic, cultural, ideological and political spaces from which they were created and that ultimately constitute the voice of the author.

Cordingley (2013:3) emphasises that the self-translator's stereolinguistic optics puts any one of her or his languages/cultures into relief with respect to the other. Consequently, translators share with many writers from the margins the tendency to subvert the possibility that their writing affirms a singular national culture or literature. Hybridity characterizes not only many self-translators' external and textual environments, but the internal bilingual and bicultural space out of which their creativity emerges.

In Brink's case, a multilingual author living in a multilingual environment, his use of languages and his creative literary practices are inevitably closely linked. By studying different linguistic versions of his novels and attempting to find traces of the voice of the author in the different versions, I aim to contribute to the increasing interest in and research on self-translation that Cordingley (2013:9) has symbolically termed "a renewed interest in the author".

Bionote: Lelanie de Roubaix is a PhD student at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. She holds a master's degree in Translation Studies as well as a BA degree in Language and Culture from Stellenbosch University. Her PhD project deals with well-known South African author André Brink as translator, focusing on his creative processes of self-translation and bilingual writing. Other research interests include ideology in translation and translation in the South African context.

WRAP-UP SESSION (20 min)

Title: Tracing Self-Translation: discursive perspectives in context: conclusions.

Speakers: Maud Gonne,University of Leuven, Belgium,

Klaartje Merrigan, University of Leuven, Belgium,

Reine Meylaerts, University of Leuven, Belgium,

Katarzyna Szymanska, University of Oxford, UK.

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 18:28

Conference interpreter training in Africa - Leveraging new technologies and pedagogical innovation for regional cooperation
Barbara Moser-Mercer, Manuela Motta and Carmen Delgado Luchner
University of Geneva

Africa and in particular sub-Saharan Africa is one of the most under-represented continents in the field of translation and interpreting studies. While a decade ago only a small number of universities offered training in these two disciplines, a number of new Master's programmes in Conference interpreting and Translation has been created during the past years, as the United Nations and other stakeholders have identified a growing need for trained language professionals, namely translators, public service interpreters and conference interpreters in Africa. Regional groups such as ECOWAS or SADC are working towards economic and political integration using English, French and Portuguese as official languages, relying on interpreters and translators to ensure communication between their member states.

Since 2010, three Universities in sub-Saharan Africa, the University of Nairobi (Kenya), Legon University (Accra, Ghana) and the Universidade Pedagogica (Maputo, Mozambique), have started to train Conference interpreters at Master's level, using English, French, Portuguese and Swahili as main languages for training.

This panel will focus on Interpreter training in sub-Saharan Africa, its history and wider context and the importance of new technologies and pedagogical innovation for regional cooperation between universities training conference interpreters. In an environment where qualified trainers, state of the art infrastructure and financial resources are not easy to come by, pooling resources across institutions is a key factor for the sustainability of training programmes. However, the current level of regional political integration and the socio-economic situation on the continent makes traditional staff and student exchanges across African regions difficult and qualified trainers with the needed languages in their combination are required to be "in two places at the same time", virtual mobility of trainers and students therefore emerges as a promising avenue for training and research.

Socio-constructivist, collaborative, student-centred virtual learning environments have generally been recognized as powerful learning spaces for knowledge acquisition. Conference interpreter training needs to rely both on knowledge and skill acquisition and for learning environments to support this process, additional tools and pedagogical strategies are needed, including peer collaboration at all levels.

The participants of this panel have collaborated closely since 2013 in order to set up a Virtual Network for Interpreter Training in Africa, enabling peer-to-peer collaboration between students and trainers in different African universities in collaboration with the Interpreting Department at the University of Geneva.

For informal enquiries: [carmenDOTdelgadoATunigeDOTch]

 

IATIS2015 Photo BarbaraMoserMercer

Barbara Moser-Mercer is Professor of conference interpreting and Director of InZone at the Faculté de traduction et d'interprétation, University of Geneva. Her research focuses on cognitive and cognitive neuro-science aspects of the interpreting process and on the human performance dimension of skill development. She has co-developed the Virtualinstitute©, the first fully integrated virtual learning environment for interpreters, which she also leverages in partnership with ICRC, ILO, UNHCR, UN- OCHA, UN-WFP, and UNAMA for training interpreters working in conflict zones both on-site in the field and virtually. She was a member of the High Level Group on Multilingualism of EU Commissioner for Multilingualism, Leonard Orban, and coordinated the European Masters in Conference Interpreting. She is also an active conference interpreter, member of AIIC.



IATIS2015 Photo ManuelaMottaManuela Motta is a conference interpreter and trainer at the FTI, University of Geneva. Her PhD dissertation (2013) focused on a blended tutoring program for the implementation of the theory of expertise and deliberate practice to facilitate the acquisition of interpreting skills. At the Critical Link conference 2013 she discussed, together with Rachel Herring, the pertinence of transposing the theory of expertise and deliberate practice from conference interpreter to community interpreter training and the limits of this approach. At the didTRAD Conference 2014, she will discuss the role of scaffolding and meta-cognition in a blended learning environment for conference interpreter training. Since 2005, she has been involved in a number of projects featuring new technologies and virtual learning environments in conference interpreter training, and the cooperation project with the African Universities in Nairobi and Accra to establish a virtual network of both students and teachers is one of these projects.




IATIS2015 Photo CarmenDelgado

Carmen Delgado Luchner is a trained translator and EU-accredited interpreter. She has been a teaching and doctoral assistant at the Faculté de traduction et d'interprétation at the University of Geneva since 2009, first in the Interpreting Department and, from 2011 for InZone. Her PhD thesis focuses on the challenges of setting up conference interpreter training programmes on the African continent and cooperation between universities in Europe and Africa. Her research interests include multilingualism in Europe and Africa, language classification in interpreting, the creation of university networks in Africa as well as the cultural aspects of interpreter training. She has been involved in the design and implementation of the African Virtual Network project involving the Universities of Geneva, Nairobi and Legon (Accra). In 2012 she presented a pilot project of virtual training for interpreting students in Africa at the IATIS conference in Belfast together with Manuela Motta.

 

 

 SESSION PLAN

SESSION 1:

MULTILINGUALISM AND INTERPRETER TRAINING IN AFRICA: HISTORY AND CONTEXT

PAPER 1:

Title: Multilingualism in Africa: Talking to the heart and to the head of Africans...

Speaker: Moss Lenga, Coordinator of the PAMCIT (Pan-African Master's Consortium in Interpreting and Translation

Abstract:

More than 2,000 of the 6,000 languages spoken in the world are natively used by Africans, either as a first or a second language, making the continent home to one of the greatest concentrations of linguistic diversity. Because of this, Africa is often perceived as the prime example of the Tower of Babel where Africans cannot share or work in their own languages. The colonial division of many ethnic groups and communities in the late 19th Century, through the creation of artificial state borders, imposed not only foreign languages like English, French, Portuguese and Spanish (to a lesser extent) but also a forced coexistence of colonial and African languages. How do Africans communicate and speak to each other and try to cope with this linguistic balkanization and its political and social consequences?

This presentation intends to analyze this interaction through the unique experience of the building up of the Pan African Master Consortium in Interpretation and Translation (PAMCIT) as a case study. Inspired by the European model for the training of interpreters, the African project developed in partnership with international organizations and European universities, on the basis of the referred to foreign languages but also Kiswahili and Arabic. As such, it had to deal with the particular conditions and situation of the African multicultural context while having to take into account different cultural realities and perceptions.

The presentation will also deal with the value and the strategic significance of the African countries' unique linguistic inheritance and how the choice of a language policy is a crucial issue at the national and continental levels, as it impacts the internal and international communication and the fulfillment of economic and development objectives. It will analyze the often conflictual relationship between the adopted foreign official languages often mastered only by the educated elite, and the local indigenous languages widely used by tens of millions of people in and across different countries. In conclusion, it will attempt to prove that if it is a vital priority to train language specialists (translators and interpreters) for conferences and meetings it is even more so to train them from and into African languages as the best solution to establish an improved communication paradigm for communities where too often a social and cultural gap has been created and needs to be bridged.

Author's Bionote:

Mr. Moss LENGA is a conference interpreter (French-English-Spanish-Portuguese-Kiswahili). After working for the United Nations Office in Geneva, he joined the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of states as staff interpreter before holding the positions of Head of conference services, then Assistant Secretary General. From 2011, he worked as a consultant for the United Nations Office at Nairobi (UNON) coordinating the African Project for the training of translators and interpreters. A trainer at the International Criminal Court (ICC) and University of Nairobi, Mr. LENGA is currently the permanent secretary of PAMCIT (the Pan African Master Consortium in Interpretation and Translation).

PAPER 2:

Title: Conference interpreter training: Experiences and lessons learnt. History of interpreter training in Africa

Speaker: Justine Ndongo-Keller, AIIC & University of Nairobi

Abstract:

Most African countries lived under colonial rule for decades, and Africans had to learn the languages of the Colonial masters. These languages were mostly: English, French, Portuguese, German, Spanish and Arabic (Islam). Cameroon is one such country in Central Africa, a country where more than 250 local/endogenous languages are spoken, some call it dialects but for us Cameroonians they are languages. Cameroon is a country that underwent different stages of colonization by different countries: first discovered by Vasco de Gama (Portugal) who called it Rios dos Camaroes, because of the many prawns on the shores of the river Wuri where he arrived in the 16th century, and much later in the 19th century, Germans, French and then British arrived in the coastal area. So interpretation has always been practised in African countries and especially in Cameroon among people of different tribes - during ceremonies (marriages, funerals, children consecration, payment of dowries etc) and between the colonial masters and the indigenous people. And for that reason, there were civil servants whose profession was "Écrivain-Interprète", in English : "Writer-Interpreter", people employed by the government. He was in charge of writing petitions for people, he will listen to them and write what they were saying and appear in court to interpret for parties. People and parties relied on him (and other such workers) to communicate.

This paper is about the history of interpretation in Africa, the evolution from the time briefly described above and the situation today; it will touch on the Cameroon Federation with two languages: French and English, then the Reunification of the two Cameroons on 20 May 1962 when French and English became the 2 official languages of the reunified country. It will describe how and where interpreters were trained before the opening of the first school of translation and interpretation in Africa - ASTI (Advanced of School of Translation and Interpretation) in September 1985, with the establishment of the University of Buea. ASTI was the first school of the kind in the sub-region and was opened to all students in the sub-region. The paper will present the historical dimension of training interpreters in Cameroon, it will describe the challenges and successes of training at ASTI Buea, the problems encountered while designing a course for the specific needs of Cameroon in particular (where to become an interpreter one had to be a translator first) and the sub-region in general (the school was opened to other countries of the sub-region); the necessity for interpreters to have specific skills before they start training; the lessons learned, the implications for training interpreters in Africa in general. I will also briefly present the situation as it is today, with the Master's programs in Conference interpreting and Translation created during the past years, as the UN and other stakeholders identified a growing need for trained language professionals, namely translators, public service interpreters and conference interpreters.

Author's Bionote:

Justine Ndongo-Keller (Cameroonian) is a Translator/Interpreter/Trainer. She holds a Postgraduate Diploma in Conference Interpretation Techniques, a Diplome D'etudes Superieures Specialisees de Traduction and a Doctorat de Troisieme Cycle en Sciences et Techniques de la Traduction et de l'Interpretation. She is Former Deputy Director in Charge of Studies of the ASTI of Buea, Cameroon, Former Chief, Language Services Section of the United Nations Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Translation and Interpretation of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, as well as a Member of the AIIC Training Committee for Africa and an Associate Member of the AIIC Training Committee.

SESSION 2:

CONFERENCE INTERPRETER TRAINING IN AFRICA: EXPERIENCES AND CHALLENGES

PAPER 3:

Title: Re-defining Interpreter and Translator Training: The African Motivation and the Challenge

Speaker: Prof. Jayne Mutiga, University of Nairobi

Abstract:

The United Nations, working in collaboration with the European Commission, the European Parliament, the African Union and other partners, mooted a Pan-African University programme that would train highly qualified translators and interpreters to fulfill sensitive tasks of intercultural and linguistic mediation in political and business settings, aiming at capacity building Africa.

"As a first step, a pilot project for the training of conference interpreters, in the spirit of multilingualism, was put in place at the University of Nairobi, in June 2010, with the support of the European Commission's Directorate General for Interpretation and European Parliament's Directorate-General for Interpretation and Conferences " UNON, 2008 (Declaration No. 8).

Although European training models exist and helped to shape the African training model, it should be taken into account that Africa has specific needs peculiar to its own linguistic terrain and educational structures. One of these peculiarities is a context of high indigenous multilingualism which co-exists with the exogenous languages that are used as official languages of education and work, within the continent.

As an initial stage in the training scheme, language combinations were to be identified and mapped out. In the case of the pilot programme, the languages to be used were; English, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese and Kiswahili, and perhaps Chinese.

However, after the inception of the programme, it also became clear that in certain circumstances training will have to be availed in combinations of less-widely spread languages, the local national indigenous languages. For Public Service Interpreting and the translation of documents for example, training needs to be offered from and into these languages as well as from and into widely-used languages including the exogenous languages spoken on the African soil.

Using the experience of setting up the pilot programme for Translation and Interpretation at the University of Nairobi, as a case study, this paper will analyse the need and motivation for this training in Africa. It will also explore the institutional and structural limitations and bottle- necks encountered in the pilot programme. Finally, it will discuss the challenge of determining the A-language and mother tongue of the candidates during the pre-training selection as occasioned by the African multilingualism.

Author's Bionote:

Jayne Mutiga is an Associate Professor of Linguistics and Communication. She holds a PhD in Linguistics and an M.A and B.A in Linguistics and African Languages. She is trained in language and communication with both academic and professional competences in a wide range of language and communication skills. She has an excellent command of written and spoken English, Kiswahili. Kikamba and Gikuyu; and is skilled in the teaching of critical thinking skills, technical writing, presentation skills, writing skills, editing and translation. She is widely published in the areas of: phonetics, phonology, language in education, language policy and planning, multilingual mother tongue education, linguistic human rights and language endangerment. Her Current research interests are in language use in multilingual settings, mother tongue education, and translation and interpreting training.

PAPER 4:

Title: Introducing Interpreter Training in an African University: a SWOT Analysis*

*Originally presented as a conference poster at the International Conference on the Interpreting Profession and Interpreter Education, Newcastle University, UK

Speaker: Dr. Robert Yennah, University of Ghana

Abstract:

This paper seeks to identify the challenges in introducing a professional training programme in an academic institution within an African setting. Data and experiences from the University of Ghana highlight common issues that favour or militate against such an initiative in other African universities such as the University of Nairobi and that of Maputo. We find that introducing a professional interpreter training programme in Africa is fraught with varied challenges: reconciling institutional concerns and priorities with those of the trainers as a group or as individuals; access to resources in a timely manner, attitudes and commitment. From the institutional perspective, the strictly professional character of the training is hardly recognized, given the limited exposure to the realities of the profession. Thus, when placing trainers within the academic system the levels of appointment may not necessarily take cognisance of the expertise and experience of the interpreter trainers as practitioners. Such are the hidden challenges that ambush new interpreter training programmes which this study seeks to reveal. It points to the implications for institutions initiating such programmes and the need for unwavering institutional support and absolute trainer commitment as prerequisites for success. The paper argues that public Universities in Africa have internal strengths which include a strong institutional base and the capacity to attract professional staff and inter-institutional collaboration. They are also exposed to external opportunities, particularly the felt need, among many, for certification, and the multilingual status of the african continent. These universities, however, are not without internal weaknesses, such as the difficult integration of professionals into academia, and the increasing cost of tuition; neither are they exempt from external threats from private initiatives and even from the fact that there are still many individuals who continue to interpret and who are reluctant to enrol for training. Consequently, future initiatives to satisfy the growing need for the institutional training of interpreters in an academic environment while overcoming the attendant problems, must be premised on adequate feasibility studies that take into account the stated challenges.

Author's Bionote:

Robert YENNAH is currently a Senior Lecturer and Head of the Department of French, University of Ghana, where he has been teaching French, and particularly 18th Century French literature, since 1992. He holds a PhD from the University of Paris IV, Sorbonne (1991) and has published widely in many international Journals in Europe and Africa. While his main research areas are in Enlightenment literature, particularly Rousseau and Voltaire, he has also been researching into translation and interpreting studies, and has been interpreting conferences since 1994. He is the Coordinator for interpreter training at the University of Ghana.

SESSION 3:

MODELS OF COOPERATION IN INTERPRETER TRAINING

PAPER 5:

Title: PEDAGOGICAL INNOVATION – THE LEGON MODEL OF COLLABORATIVE TEACHING – PROSPECTS FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF INTERPRETER TRAINING

Speaker: Jibola Sofolahan, AIIC & University of Ghana

Abstract:

Interpreter training schools in Africa, and indeed, in many parts of the world frequently suffer from a shortage of trainers. Many have closed down for this reason. Several reasons - lack of trainers in sufficient numbers, tension between academia and the profession in terms of remuneration and qualifications – can be adduced for this. Moreover, the few trainers that do exist do not necessarily live in the cities hosting the universities or training institutions, nor do they necessarily have the language combinations to cover those of the students effectively.

In Africa, some universities have only one professional interpreter on staff, others have none at all. The University of Ghana is perhaps the exception. The programme started in August 2012 with 3 interpreters on staff. Two more joined in 2013. None of the five trainers is resident in Accra. Consequently a pedagogical innovation has evolved in the form of a collaborative teaching arrangement across the entire curriculum. Each trainer takes one week and teaches all the courses. Where capacity is inadequate or lacking to cover some language combinations, students are sent to partner universities for one semester. (La Laguna for Spanish, Lisbon for Portuguese and Lebanon for Arabic). The Legon model may best be described as traditional team teaching as defined by Vanderbilt University, but it has some unique characteristics which make it extremely flexible ands therefore adaptable to different scenarios.

Other forms of collaborative teaching exist and are also being used, perhaps more by other PAMCIT universities than by Legon. Given PAMCIT's relationship with the EU SCIC and partner universities, partnership takes the form of pedagogical assistance and virtual classes.

There is a sense in which leveraging new technologies to provide blended and/or distance learning and facilitate trainer mobility across institutions can contribute tremendously to collaborative learning becoming the solution to the incessant problem of shortage of trainers.

Using the Legon model as a case study, this paper will examine the strengths and weaknesses of the various components of collaborative teaching in interpreter training - co-teaching, distance learning, trainer and student mobility (in cases of language combinations for which capacity is not available in the home institution).

The paper will demonstrate its potential for the sustainability of PAMCIT, and highlight the factors that will guarantee successful interpreter training outcomes through team teaching. Naturally, the application of collaborative teaching models as a solution to trainer shortage strengthens the argument in favour of curriculum harmonization across PAMCIT institutions.

Beyond Africa, the model can be adapted in other parts to the world to address the same needs.

Author's Bionote:

Jibola Sofolahan has been teaching conference interpreting at the University of Ghana since 2012. Prior to that she had organized a series of skills upgrade workshops for interpreters. She obtained a MAS in Interpreter Training from the University of Geneva in 2007, and Certificates of Proficiency in Conference interpreting from Georgetown University in 1983.

She is a practicing conference interpreter and an active member of AIIC. She is a member of the AIIC Training Committee. She was the first Coordinator of the AIIC Africa Region Training Group and remains an active member of the group.

PAPER 6:

Title: Promises and challenges of North-South cooperation in Conference Interpreter Training

Speaker: Carmen Delgado Luchner, Université de Genève

Abstract:

Conference interpreter training requires a particularly high level of human, financial and technological resources: student groups are usually small, yet include a variety of language combinations, thus increasing the trainer-to-student ratio; the number of practice necessary in order to acquire the skill often outstrips the statutory number of lessons on a university curriculum; and the quality of training is greatly enhanced by the use of state-of-the-art technology that allows for streaming of audio and video resources and double-track recording of speeches and their interpretation.

Meeting these quality requirements poses obvious challenges in the current public higher education environment in sub-Saharan Africa, where the three types of resources are increasingly scarce due to prevailing trends towards massification, with ever larger numbers of students in search of higher education; and a reduction in public funding, which, at best, allows universities to keep their infrastructure and human resources at a constant level - but more often than not leads to an overall reduction in the number of academic staff.

Despite this difficult environment, several universities in sub-Saharan Africa, namely the University of Nairobi, University of Ghana (Legon, Accra) and the Universidade Pedagogica (Maputo) decided to meet the challenge and launch conference interpreter training programmes. From the inception of its programme in 2010, the University of Nairobi collaborated closely with the Interpreting Department at the University of Geneva, thus forging a type of academic partnership that corresponds to an important current trend in higher education. Indeed, European universities are increasingly keen to collaborate with partners on the African continent in both research and training, furthermore, funding for academic activities is often conditional on cooperation with partners in the global South.

This presentation explores and analyses the bilateral cooperation between the University of Nairobi and the University of Geneva between 2010 and 2014, with a view to improving our understanding of the promises and challenges associated with this type of cooperation in the field of conference interpreting and beyond. We will present the most important steps taken by the two institutions in the framework of this cooperation, their projected outcomes and their effective impact on the ground - thus aiming to contribute to the establishment of best practices in the field of North-South cooperation between institutions of higher learning in general and interpreting departments in particular.

Author's bionote:

Carmen Delgado Luchner is a trained translator and EU-accredited interpreter. She has been a teaching and doctoral assistant at the Faculté de traduction et d'interprétation at the University of Geneva since 2009, first in the Interpreting Department and, from 2011 for InZone. Her PhD thesis focuses on the challenges of setting up conference interpreter training programmes on the African continent and cooperation between universities in Europe and Africa. Her research interests include multilingualism in Europe and Africa, language classification in interpreting, the creation of university networks in Africa as well as the cultural aspects of interpreter training. She has been involved in the design and implementation of the African Virtual Network project involving the Universities of Geneva, Nairobi and Legon (Accra). In 2012 she presented a pilot project of virtual training for interpreting students in Africa at the IATIS conference in Belfast together with Manuela Motta.

SESSION 4:

LEVERAGING NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN INTERPRETER TRAINING

PAPER 7:

Title: A Virtual learning environment for the acquisition of interpreting skills

Speaker: Dr. Manuela Motta, Université de Genève

Abstract:

This presentation will focus on the virtual learning environment that was used for the virtual collaboration among students of the Universities of Geneva, Nairobi and Accra, and on examples of the learning activities that students carried out. Students' opinion on this experience will also be presented.

Interpreting implies the simultaneous listening to and translating of a message, it involves a number of subtasks such as analysing, memorising, language production and monitoring, and it thus relies on both knowledge and skill acquisition. The pedagogical approach to interpreter training adopted at the Interpreting Department of the University of Geneva is based on scientific research carried out on an integrated approach to learning that encompasses (adaptive) expertise, deliberate practice, feedback, metacognition and self-regulation in a blended learning environment. During face-to-face classes and students' group practice sessions, students are made aware of the need to acquire interpreting skills by means of structured and specific exercises aiming at training specific sub-skills, alongside the ability to analyse their own learning process with a view to adapting the training activities to their own specific learning needs. This learning process is supported by the Virtual Institute, a virtual learning environment developed by the Interpreting Department of the University of Geneva that promotes a socio-constructivist approach to learning, where learning is considered as an active process allowing the collaborative construction of knowledge and acquisition of skills on the basis of prior knowledge and under the guidance of trainer and peers who provide formative feedback. Learning thus takes place in the framework of a community of practice based on tools and pedagogical strategies specifically designed for skill acquisition in interpreting.

In the context of the collaboration project among the Universities of Geneva, Nairobi and Accra, based on a needs analysis in the partner universities, different virtual training modules were developed, focusing on specific difficulties students encounter when working in consecutive or simultaneous interpretation. All modules rely on a common feature: students carry out the specific exercise using a set of materials created by trainers, they provide feedback to a peer and record further training material in relation to a specific difficulty for peers to be able to practice. A number of objectives are thus reached with one single activity: students have at their disposal high quality training materials at the right level of performance, they analyse the specific difficulty tackled so as to provide peers with additional training materials, they analyse their own performance and share it with peers, so that peers can provide feedback on their performance. Examples of these activities will be presented and students' opinion will provide a framework for evaluation of their usefulness.

Author's Biotnote:

Manuela Motta is a conference interpreter and trainer at the FTI, University of Geneva. Her PhD dissertation (2013) focused on a blended tutoring program for the implementation of the theory of expertise and deliberate practice to facilitate the acquisition of interpreting skills. At the Critical Link conference 2013 she discussed, together with Rachel Herring, the pertinence of transposing the theory of expertise and deliberate practice from conference interpreter to community interpreter training and the limits of this approach. At the didTRAD Conference 2014, she will discuss the role of scaffolding and meta-cognition in a blended learning environment for conference interpreter training. Since 2005, she has been involved in a number of projects featuring new technologies and virtual learning environments in conference interpreter training, and the cooperation project with the African Universities in Nairobi and Accra to establish a virtual network of both students and teachers is one of these projects.

PAPER 8:

Title: Virtual learning spaces for knowledge and skill acquisition in the African context.

Speaker: Prof. Barbara Moser-Mercer, Université de Genève

Abstract:

While virtual learning in Africa has been characterized often by notions of limited connectivity, the continent continues to provide ample evidence of using available virtual resources creatively, thus extending virtual learning spaces despite connectivity constraints.

There is dynamic development in Africa regarding all forms of e-learning, whether structured as in a school or university setting, or unstructured as in the re-use of open source content and learning materials. Connectivity constraints have produced creative solutions in terms of off-line use of open content, burst connectivity to overcome irregular connectivity, adoption of international content with on-site tutoring, and the development of more local content. Formal integration of e-learning into more standard curricula, such as by the African Virtual University, the University of South Africa or the more recent newcomer, the Open University of Kenya, has been more challenging than the rapid development of informal e-learning, simply because traditional educational structures have been slow to integrate ICT and because even in large, urban universities, connectivity is often patchy.

The vast majority of educational users in Africa have access to laptops (95%), followed by desktop access (85%) and tablet access (46%). This is also reflected in the devices users believe to have the greatest potential for education and training, where laptops lead with 29%, followed by tablets (18%), smart phones (17%) and basic cell phones (16%). This provides a clear indication of the future of mobile learning in Africa, and as education providers we need to develop the right synergies between pedagogical approaches and IT-environments and spaces in which learning will take place.

In terms of skill acquisition in interpreting, where competence, motivation and opportunity are essential to success, creating learning opportunities in Africa will depend on continued creativity in the development of virtual learning spaces that can be leveraged on mobile devices. Interpreter training builds on both knowledge and skill components, with knowledge/content being deliverable in a more static and off-line form, and skill acquisition being supported through more dynamic and on-line, mostly asynchronous forms. Both forms lend themselves to intra-continental and intercontinental collaboration. Understanding the basic building blocks that will support skill acquisition and integrate them into virtual learning environments will ensure that innovation becomes sustainable.

Author's Bionote:

Barbara Moser-Mercer is Professor of conference interpreting and Director of InZone at the Faculté de traduction et d'interprétation, University of Geneva. Her research focuses on cognitive and cognitive neuro-science aspects of the interpreting process and on the human performance dimension of skill development. She has co-developed the Virtualinstitute©, the first fully integrated virtual learning environment for interpreters, which she also leverages in partnership with ICRC, ILO, UNHCR, UN- OCHA, UN-WFP, and UNAMA for training interpreters working in conflict zones both on-site in the field and virtually. She was a member of the High Level Group on Multilingualism of EU Commissioner for Multilingualism, Leonard Orban, and coordinated the European Masters in Conference Interpreting. She is also an active conference interpreter, member of AIIC.

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 18:38

 

New Trends in the Research on AVT and Accessibility
Vera Lúcia Santiago Araújo, State University of Ceara, Brazil

This panel addresses the current status of the research on Audiovisual translation and accessibility. Different methods and theories have been used since the beginning of AVT research in the nineties, ranging from the description of norms (Descriptive Translation Studies), experimental research (Reception Studies) and case studies (action research). The objective of this panel is to bring together those who are interested in, and concerned about the discussion of the contribution on how different methods and disciplines approach the access of people with sensory impairment (deaf and blind) to audiovisual products by means of subtitling for the deaf and the hard-of-hearing (SDH) and audiodescription (AD). It is composed of twelve papers dealing with the interface of SDH and AD and Corpus Linguistics, Multimodality, Social Semiotics and Text World Theory.

For informal enquiries: [verainnerlightATuolDOTcomDOTbr]

Photo Vera Lucia Santiago Araujo

Vera Lúcia Santiago Araújo Vera Lúcia Santiago Araújo (State University of Ceara) has been working with audiovisual translation and accessibility since the year 2000, mainly with SDH and AD, having developed research, written academic papers and supervised theses and dissertations on the topic. She has organized a lot of panels, workshops and round tables in different Brazilian Conferences. The last one was on the Brazilian Translation Research Conference (ABRAPT) last year in Florianópolis, Brazil.

 

 

 

 

 

SESSION PLAN

SESSION 1: THE RESEARCH ON SUBTITLING AND ITS INTERFACES

Introduction: 5 minutes

PAPER 1:

Title: Sound effects in French subtitling for deaf and hard-of-hearing: a corpus-based study

Speaker: Ana Katarinna Pessoa do Nascimento, USP (Brazil)

PAPER 2:

Title: The Analysis of Multimodal Irony in Film Subtitles

Speaker: Paulina Burczynska, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

PAPER 3:

Title: A Multimodal Analysis of Chinese Subtitles in Animated Films--A Case Study of Mulan (1998)

Speaker: Yuping Chen and Wei Wang, University of Sydney (Australia).

PAPER 4:

Title: Subtitles as a Manipulated Source for Target Audience's Text-Worlds

Speaker: Zhu Zhu, University of Edinburgh (Scotland).

PAPER 5:

Title: Linguistic Segmentation in the SDH of a Brazilian Soap Opera: a corpus-based study

Speaker: Ítalo Assis, UECE (Brazil)

Discussion: 33 minutes

Wrap-up time: 10 minutes

SESSION 2: THE RESEARCH ON AUDIODESCRIPTION AND ITS INTERFACES

Introduction: 5 minutes

PAPER 6:

Title: A proposal for the audiodescription of children's books

Speaker: Soraya Ferreira Alves, UNB (Brazil)

PAPER 7:

Title: Why not? Arguments in favor of a closer and more effective partnership between sighted describers and consultants

Speaker: Manoela Silva, UFBA (Brazil)

PAPER 8:

Title: The importance of being relevant? The benefits of using pragmatic and cognitive approaches to conceptualise audio description

Speaker: Sabine Braun,

PAPER 9:

Title: Overcoming the interpretion/description dichotomy in AD: an interdisciplinary approach

Speakers: Larissa Costa and Gabriela Baptista, PUC-Rio (Brazil)

PAPER 10:

Title: Brazilian audiodescribed television: a corpus based study of ad screenplays of films and TV series

Speakers: Renata Mascarenhas, Alexandra Seoane, Ana Tássia Silva, Ana Carla Nóbrega, Jéssica Nóbrega and Lindolfo Farias Júnior, UECE (BRAZIL)

PAPER 11:

Title: In search of parameters for the audiodescription of paintings with the support of audiovisual translation, multimodality and social semiotics

Speaker: Maria Nunes, UECE (Brazil)

Discussion: 33 minutes

Wrap-up time: 10 minutes

PAPER TITLES, ABSTRACTS AND BIONOTES

PAPER 1:

Title: Sound effects in French subtitling for deaf and hard-of-hearing: a corpus-based study

Speaker: Ana Katarinna Pessoa do Nascimento, University of São Paulo, USP (Brazil)

Abstract:

In addition to images, audio plays a key role in creating meaning in a movie plot. The sound universe of a movie consists of three basic elements: speech, music and noise, also known as soundtrack. Without the aid of subtitling, deaf or hard of hearing audiences do not have access to those audiovisual productions' features. Therefore, the subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH) must indicate the speaker and sound effects. The audiovisual accessibility has been discussed in France since 1986 through the "Freedom of Communication" Law. Given the French tradition in SDH, this study sought to examine the translation of sound effects in three French films sold on DVD: Nos jours heureux (2006), Les femmes du sixième étage (2010) and L'écume des jours (2013). These three movies are qualified as comedy. For the analysis, the subtitle files of these movies were extracted in .txt format, so their sound effects and music subtitles could be tagged. They received discursive tags containing the following categories: gap music, screen music, qualified music, non-qualified music, sounds made by man, sounds made by objects, nature sounds, animal sounds and fictional sounds. These tags were created looking upon sound of the cinema theories. The subtitle files were analyzed by means of WordSmith Tools 5.0, using the above-mentioned categories. This way, it was possible to see each sound effect subtitle in context with others of the same category. When it was necessary, the researcher looked through the movie scenes, so one could see if the subtitle corresponded to the sound intended by the director in the movie. The data revealed that the sound effects in the French subtitles were translated taking into account the function of each sound within the movie. This leads to conclude that the French translation of sound effects is a quality translation, meaning that a deaf viewer would be able to understand the sound features of the movie plot without asking for help, which is the point of Audiovisual Translation: accessibility for those who need it.

Bionote:

Katarinna Pessoa is undergraduated from State University of Ceará with a degree in French language(2010), has a Master Degree in Applied Linguistics from the same institution (2013). She is currently a Ph.D. student in Translation Studies from the University of São Paulo. She is involved in Audiovisual Translation Research with emphasis in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH) and Corpus Linguistics.

PAPER 2:

Title: The Analysis of Multimodal Irony in Film Subtitles

Speaker: Paulina Burczynska, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

Abstract:

Research on verbal irony has been attracting growing attention from audiovisual translation scholars. Nevertheless, the number of conducted studies on the combination between verbal and non-verbal components in the analysis, translation, and particularly, reception of irony transfer in audiovisual texts is still very limited. Due to the rapid technological advances, commercial requirements and differentiated viewer's preferences, it is thus crucial to understand how viewers prioritize meaning-making modes embedded in the multimodal text and conveyed via subtitles so that a film could be accessible for a broader audience. The reception analysis of the subtitled films also aims to support screen translators in decision-making processes to produce film translation. My theoretical framework comprises of the echoic theory of irony and multimodal theory. Echoic theory of irony appears to be the most capable framework to support the study of multimodal irony in audiovisual texts as the significant importance of non-verbal semiotic resources in the generation and interpretation of irony has been demonstrated. Multimodal theory, on the other hand, will enable me to examine the role that verbal and non-verbal modes play in the construction of irony on screen. The data set is interrogated using a mixed-methods approach consisting of observational tools, questionnaires and eye-tracking. The observational phase involves multimodal transcriptions of selected fragments in which irony plays a pivotal narrative role to determine what non-verbal modes contribute to the multimodal construal of irony and how irony is relayed in the subtitles translation. The experimental phase will combine the use of eye-tracking technology and questionnaires for the purposes of triangulation. The analysis proceeds in the following way: first the selected excerpts of the film are divided into individual frames in order to identify and analyze what and how non-verbal semiotic resources are intertwined to construe a meaningful whole. The frames are arranged in sequences vertically demonstrating in columns various semiotic modes which contribute to the creation of meaning. Subsequently, subtitles are transcribed and analyzed. In the experimental phase, responders' eye movements will be recorded when watching selected fragments of the films. This will follow up with a questionnaire in order to elucidate how viewers of the subtitled version of the films i.e. Sherlock Holmes (2009) and Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows (2011) are able to retrieve ironic meaning in the original films. The results yielded form the multimodal analysis are expected to indicate how irony is conveyed in the subtitled Polish version of the two films. The experimental phase is expected to report what is the contribution of non-verbal semiotic resources to irony reception and comprehension by Polish viewers and what semiotic resources do Polish viewers prioritize when watching selected film fragments featuring the use of irony. On this basis, I aim to make an assessment of how effective subtitles are in the translation and reception of irony.

Bionote:

Paulina Burczyńska is currently a PhD student in Translation and Intercultural Studies at the University of Manchester, UK. She has an MA in Applied Linguistics from Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland. As a scholarship recipient Paulina studied at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. Her research interests focus mainly on multimodality, reception, audiovisual translation, pragmatics, non-professional translation as well as SLA via different modes of translation. As a young researcher, Paulina has already presented her research at international conference in Spain, Italy, UK, Belgium, Poland and Costa Rica.

PAPER 3:

Title: A Multimodal Analysis of Chinese Subtitles in Animated Films--A Case Study of Mulan (1998)

Speaker: Yuping Chen and Wei Wang, University of Sydney (Australia).

Abstract:

There is a common call in the field of subtitle translation to improve the quality of subtitles and construct a reliable theoretical framework to direct subtitling. By referring to Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL) that can equip us with a fundamental research perspective to address subtitle translation and Semiotic Translation that can provide us with a specific angle to analyse subtitle translation, this paper seeks to conduct a SFL-informed and semiotics-guided multimodal analysis of Chinese subtitles in animated films.Subtitle translation is never a pure linguistic meaning transfer process, but involves various semiotic modes. This rationalizes the adoption of multimodality to examine subtitling. Furthermore, due to the fact that audiovisual texts are dynamic-image reigned, the moving feature of these images must be considered in subtitling process. This justifies the employment of SFL-informed multimodal analysis to investigate the meaning-making process by dissecting audiovisual texts into three co-existent metafunctional levels: representational level, interactive level and compositional level. Different from the multimodal analysis of print texts, these three metafunctions are addressed at different social semiotic levels of films. Representational meaning is analysed by addressing the semiotic interplay between participants and contexts in frame/shot, i.e. uncut camera movement. Interactive meaning is examined by investigating how the intersemiotic relation functions in scenes when edited camera movement entails the interaction between viewers and the videoed physical world. Compositional meaning is dealt with by taking the sequence, generic stage, or even the whole audiovisual text into account to highlight how representational meaning and interactive meaning are integrated to realize the holistic cohesion in subtitling. However, since SFL-inspired multimodal analysis is not applicable in explicating the translation practice, Semiotic Translation is ushered in by resorting to its three basic concepts, including abduction, deduction and induction, to address subtitle translation at representational level, interactive level and compositional level respectively. By integrating SFL-based multimodality and Semiotic Translation, a theoretical framework is established. Through analysing the Chinese subtitles of one Disney animated film --- Mulan (1998), it is found that there are seven types of semiotic interplay at three metafunctional levels, shouldering various functions to facilitate the subtitling process and exerting different impacts on linguistic levels in subtitles. In one sentence, this study integrates SFL-based multimodality and Semiotic Translation to construct a theoretical framework guiding the production of high quality subtitles. This would be of great significance to both practical and academic fields of subtitle translation.

Bionote:

Ms. Yuping Chen is a PhD student at the University of Sydney, Australia. She received her M.A. from Guangxi University, China in 2003 and then worked in English Department, China Agricultural University as a lecturer. After her ten-year career as a university teacher, she went to the University of Sydney to start her PhD study in 2013. Her thesis is about the multimodal analysis of subtitle translation. She just successfully completed her probation and won a faculty scholarship to support her trip to attend an international conference held in September, 2013 in Germany.

PAPER 4:

Title: Subtitles as a Manipulated Source for Target Audience's Text-Worlds

Speaker: Zhu Zhu, University of Edinburgh (Scotland).

Abstract:

Cognitive theories generally hold that human beings understand a text by creating and processing mental representations in their minds. Text World Theory shares this belief and calls mental representations 'text-worlds'. Informed by systemic functional grammar and other cognitive, psychological and philosophical approaches, Text World Theory holds that text-worlds are situated by world-building elements (time, location, object and enactor) and propelled by function-advancing propositions (relational, material and mental processes). A film is a polysemiotic text composed of messages produced and received in aural-verbal, aural-nonverbal, visual-verbal and visual-nonverbal channels. Messages in each channel would contribute to the creation and development of the target audience's text-worlds. When a film is subtitled in a foreign language, messages originally carried in the aural-verbal channel are duplicated in the visual-verbal channel. Due to the three-fold translation constraints on subtitling (cross-medium, feedback-effect and technical constraints), it is not possible for the messages duplicated in the subtitles to be identical to those in the original dialogue exchanges in either form or content. This means that compared to the intended audience of the original film, the target audience of the subtitled version would base their text-worlds on manipulated world builders and advancers. The current study looks at what has been manipulated in the process of subtitling Chinese feature films into English and how, and also what impact such manipulation may potentially have on the creation and development of the target audience's text-worlds. Three Chinese films are selected as the case study in this paper: Farewell My Concubine (dir. CHEN Kaige, 1993), Summer Palace (dir. LO Ye, 2006) and Coming Home (dir. ZHANG Yimou, 2014). All the three films contain sections set against the background of political turmoil in modern China: either the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) or the Tiananmen Incident (1989). Detailed comparison between the English subtitles and the original dialogue exchanges is carried out at the sentence level. The entire dialogue exchanges and subtitles of the three films are examined with a focus placed on extralinguistic cultural references (ECRs)

Bionote:

Zhu holds a PhD in Translation Studies from Newcastle University and is working at Asian Studies, University of Edinburgh in the role of Chinese Language Programme Director. She carries out research in the fields of translation studies, Chinese language teaching methodology and second language acquisition. Zhu is also an active translator with extensive professional experience.

PAPER 5:

Title: Linguistic Segmentation in the SDH of a Brazilian Soap Opera: a corpus-based study

Speaker: Ítalo Assis, State University of Ceará, UECE (Brazil)

Abstract:

Since 2002, State University of Ceará has carried out researches about Subtitling for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (SDH) in an attempt to establish parameters that fit the needs that Brazilian deaf people might have. The results of one of these previous studies have suggested that a good segmentation – subtitling feature that is related to the division of the translated speech into text along the subtitle – can guarantee a comfortable subtitle for the deaf community even when the subtitle is based on reading speeds of 160 and 180 words per minute. This work aims at describing and analyzing how ill-segmented subtitles regarding linguistic segmentation – segmentation that is based on syntax and is related to the division of the translated text into subtitles of 2 lines or more – is presented in the closed caption pop-on type of SDH aired on Brazilian TV network. More specifically, in the SDH of one episode of the Brazilian telenovela Amor Eterno Amor, part of the corpus of the CORSEL project (Corpus, Segmentation and Subtitling) and which was extracted automatically with the program CCExctractor. The methodology was based on a descriptive dimension, making use of a quali-quantitative analysis to check the problems related to the linguistic segmentation. It was done by using tools that are proper from Corpus Linguistics, such as annotation and corpus electronic analysis. The so-called segmentation problems were identified by annotation of specific tags to this kind of analysis, created from a Brazilian Portuguese grammar based on a functional aspect. After the annotation process, the corpus could be analyzed with the help of the program Wordsmith Tools 5.0. The results of the research indicated a substantial quantity of linguistic segmentation problems in the corpus, close to 26.8 % from the total amount of subtitles. The problems appeared with more frequency in verbal and noun phrases, as well as in 3-line subtitles with a high speed. I consider this substantial quantity of segmentation problems in the corpus as one of the reflexes of the lack of preoccupation TV Stations in Brazil have got with their subtitle quality. Also, subtitlers' lack of expertise on linguistic segmentation may be one of the causes of so many problems.

Bionote:

Ítalo Alves Pinto de Assis holds a Bachelor's degree in English from State University of Ceará and is currently a Master's student at the Applied Linguistics Graduation Program from the aforementioned university. His research now focuses on the cognitive effect of ill-segmented subtitles on the reception by deaf and hearing viewers. His academic background is rooted in Translations Studies, more specifically in the Audiovisual Translation (AVT) branch aimed at Media Accessibility through Subtitle for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (SDH) and Audio Description for the blind. His areas of research interests include Corpus-based Translation Studies, Experimentation in Translation and Applied Linguistics.

PAPER 6

Title: A proposal for the audiodescription of children's books

Speaker: Soraya Ferreira Alves, University of Brasília, UNB (Brazil)

Abstract:

This paper aims at presenting the results of a research held at University of Brasília – UnB, during the period 2013/2014 and is linked to a research group on audiovisual translation and accessibility. It intended to suggest patterns for the audio description for visually impaired children of illustrated children´s books. In this case, the audio description would consist in the description of the images and their relation to the written text. The audio description is gradually being implanted in Brazil, and there are initiatives of the government in order to establish patterns of audio description of books, as the Nota Técnica Nº 21 / 2012 / MEC / SECADI /DPEE – MECDaisy, published at internet, which expects to regulate such practice with editors. Such document, however, does not include specific proposals for children´s books. Having this observation as basis, and having in mind that the semiotics organization of the book, that is, the relation between text/narration/images/audio description should make sense for the children, it was traced a methodology to verifying if the children´s books published in Brazil with audio description were following the rules of Mecdaisy and if they would fit the necessities of visually impaired children. So, a reception test was held at CEEDV – DF (Centro de Ensino Especial do Deficiente Visual), with 17 children between 5 and 8 years old. At first, all the children listened to a book published with audio description and answered comprehension questions. Then, an activity with the same book was applied at the classes, as a suggestion of the teachers involved, and other questions were made, along with the intervention of the teachers. After the results obtained and discussed with the teachers, the audio description of another book was made, following their observations and suggestions, like the insertion of sound effects. Then, other activities were proposed in order to verifying the comprehension of the children and if they liked to listen the story with audio description. After the test, the teachers answered a questionnaire about the efficacy of the audio descriptions of both books and their suggestions for a model that would satisfy the children. A final proposal of audio description was recorded and given to the school. Our final proposal for the audio description includes the insertions of music and sound effects and a major integration of narrative and audio description.

Bionote:

Dr. Soraya Ferreira Alves is graduated in Translation English/Portuguese at Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo; has received her Master and Doctorate degrees in Communication and Semiotics also by PUC-SP. Developed a post-doctorate research at Universidade Estadual do Ceará under the sponsorship of CAPES. Professor at Universidade de Brasilia – UnB, teaches at the Translation Course and at the Master in Translation Studies acting mainly with literary and audiovisual translation. Has presented papers on literature studies, literary and audiovisual translation both in national and international conferences, and written articles in refereed Brazilian journals. Conducts research on audiovisual accessibility. Is audio descriptor.

PAPER 7:

Title: Why not? Arguments in favor of a closer and more effective partnership between sighted describers and consultants

Speaker: Manoela Silva, Federal University Of Bahia, UFBA (Brazil)

Abstract:

Audio description (AD), a translation mode that aims at making visual information accessible to those who are blind, have low vision or who otherwise have difficulty to grasp visual information, was introduced to the Brazilian public more than a decade ago. Over the past years, the activity has left the shadows and has gained the status of an official occupation, being included in the Brazilian Classification of Professions (Classificação Brasileira de Ocupações - CBO). As a result, the quality of the descriptions being offered and their adequacy to the target audience became even a bigger issue, which led to the emergence of a new professional: the consultant. However, the role of that professional in the AD process might differ a lot depending on the company or team of audio describers. Most of the time, since the consultants are members of the target audience, they act as revisers checking if scripts created by sighted describers are understandable and would suit the needs of visually impaired people. Sometimes, however, they work side by side with their sighted peers and are involved in the writing of the scripts as well. Personally, we favor the second model. The objective of this study, therefore, is to present arguments in favor of a closer and more effective partnership between sighted describers and consultants. The research derives from two other studies. The first one, whose objective was to outline the competencies needed by visually impaired people to act as consultants, was presented in the city of Florianópolis in 2013 at ABRAPT's XI International Congress and the V International Congress of Translators. The second one, whose objective was to describe which elements in a training course were necessary to foster a more collaborative work between prospective describers and future consultants, was presented in the city of Salvador in 2014 as part of UFBA's XII Seminar on Applied Linguistics and VIII Seminar on Translation. After those studies, we offered training courses aligned to the principles outlined in those works to both sighted and non-sighted people. The data collected was then complemented by some practical exercises we undertook in writing scripts together with visually impaired people as well as by interviews we carried out with professional describers and consultants. All those experiences led us to believe in the advantages of a stronger partnership between sighted and non-sighted professionals. We want to make clear, however, that our goal is not to dictate rules, but to demystify "the less travelled road" and help describers make reasoned decisions about the role of the consultant in the AD process.

Bionote:

Manoela Cristina Correia Carvalho da Silva holds a Master in Letters and Linguistics from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA). She works at the same institution where she teaches English and Translation to undergraduate students, besides working with teacher training as one of the coordinators of the institutional program for proficiency in foreign languages (PROFICI). Author of the first master's degree thesis on audio description (AD) written in Brazil, she is currently the coordinator of TRAMAD (Translation, Media and Audio description), a pioneer Brazilian research group on AD.

PAPER 8:

Title: The importance of being relevant? The benefits of using pragmatic and cognitive approaches to conceptualise audio description

Speaker: Sabine Braun, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)

Abstract: In Audio Description (AD), the translation process starts from a multimodal discourse (based on a film or multimodal performance), of which one or several elements (visual images and some sound effects) are translated into a verbal text (a set of audio descriptions). This text is produced to form part of the multimodal discourse that the visually impaired target audience processes (the audio described version of the film or performance). One of the challenges the audio describer faces is that s/he has control over only some elements of this discourse. Another challenge of AD is the limited time to describe rich visual images and scenes, necessitating specific strategies of information selection, condensation and/or omission. Although not exclusive to AD, these challenges have led to AD (and other modalities of audiovisual translation) being conceptualised as constrained and partial translation (Bogucki 2004; Benecke 2014). Inspired by the belief that pragmatic and cognitive models of communication enable us to re-evaluate these perceptions and offer great potential for the study and practice of AD, this presentation aims to review such models and discuss their contribution to conceptualising especially the three inter-related sub-processes of AD: the comprehension of the multimodal source discourse by the audio describer; the translation of selected elements of this discourse; and the comprehension of the newly formed multimodal discourse by the visually impaired target audience. The focus will be on two models, Relevance Theory (Sperber & Wilson ²1995), which presents the most comprehensive pragmatic model of communication, and Mental Model Theory (Johnson-Laird 1983, 2006), which underlies cognitive models of discourse processing. Although these models have so far mainly been used to explain monomodal verbal discourse, it will be argued, by drawing on the small but growing body of relevant research, that they can be applied to multimodal discourse as such (e.g. Forceville 2014; Yus 2008) and to AD (e.g. Braun 2007, 2011; Kruger 2012; Fresno 2012; Martínez 2010; Vandaele 2011), and that the benefits of their application to AD are wide-ranging. It will be shown, for example, how the chosen theoretical models can raise awareness and create understanding among practitioners and target audiences for the difficulties with lay requests for 'objectivity' and 'describing just what you see'; how the explanations derived from these models provide a fruitful basis for training; and how a pragmatic and cognitive reconceptualization of AD contributes to the empowerment of the audio describer as a linguistically, culturally and socially responsible agent and creative decision maker. The presentation will begin by providing a brief introduction to the two models and explain how apply to multimodal discourse. Then this framework will be used to discuss and question common perceptions of AD as being 'constrained' and 'partial' translation. This will be followed by an outline and illustration of the benefits of adopting the proposed theoretical framework, drawing on a corpus of practical examples of AD and on academic and lay discourses relating to AD. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion of questions for further research in this framework.

Bionote:

Dr Sabine Braun is Director of the Centre for Translation Studies at the University of Surrey. Her research focuses on new modalities of interpreting and translation, especially videoconference-based and remote interpreting, which is used increasingly to deliver interpreting services in business and public service contexts, and audio description, a growing media access service for blind and partially sighted people and a new modality of intersemiotic translation. Sabine is also interested in learning technologies and their application to interpreter education. She teaches Interpreting Studies and Applied Linguistics, and has developed several MA programmes in interpreting at the University of Surrey.

PAPER 9:

Title: Overcoming the interpretation/description dichotomy in AD: an interdisciplinary approach

Speakers: Larissa Costa and Gabriela Baptista, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio De Janeiro, PUC-Rio (Brazil)

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to produce a theoretical investigation about the relationship between the description and interpretation of visual images in audiovisual translation (AVT) focusing on audio description (AD). AD is defined as the translation of images into words, intended to make visual media accessible for the blind and the visually impaired. Therefore, the main particularity of AD is that the source texts are visual images, in all forms: still or moving, seen live or mediated by a screen etc. The issue of how words and visual images are interpreted is central to the elaboration of guidelines for AD, since "describe what you see" is the field's main general rule. Frequently, both lay people and specialists still conceive describing and interpreting as a dichotomy, and prioritize description, seen as objective, over interpretation, considered as subjective and valuational. In order to examine this issue, we draw on the field of literary criticism, based on the premise that there are interpretative strategies authorised by institutions and shared by groups of individuals, for whom some interpretations are more acceptable than others. Our methodology is based on social semiotics and multimodal research, which emphasise the communicative practices of individuals interacting in social contexts by articulating and interpreting discourses produced through the organisation of semiotic resources called 'modes' (i.e. image, writing, lay out, visual image, speech, gesture, posture, music, moving image, 3D object, soundtrack). All modes and the relations between them offer a potential to produce meanings, which are socially constructed. In other words, the meaning making potential of verbal language (writing and speech) and images (moving and still) and cultural conventions guide their production and interpretation. The main point of our analysis is to deconstruct the interpretation/description dichotomy in AD, since interpretation is always part of all communicative practices. The result we aim at is to develop a theoretical basis by providing analysis tools that can inform the decision making process of audio describers and audiovisual translators

Bionote:

Gabriela Baptista has a degree in Film from UFF and is currently a master's student in Translation Studies at PUC-Rio, researching the theoretical and conceptual approach of visual images in AVT. She is a translator, mostly for voice over and dubbing of TV programs. Larissa Costa has a degree in History from UERJ, a master's degree in Compared History (UFRJ) and a doctorate degree in Translation Studies from PUC-Rio. She is currently an audio describer, mainly for film, working in the following issues: audio description, audiovisual translation and accessibility.

PAPER 10:

Title: Brazilian audiodescribed television: a corpus based study of ad screenplays of films and TV series

Speakers: Renata Mascarenhas, Alexandra Seoane, Ana Tássia Silva, Ana Carla Nóbrega, Jéssica Nóbrega and Lindolfo Farias Júnior, UECE (BRAZIL)

Abstract:

In compliance with the Ordinance No. 188/ 2010, the TV stations that transmit with a digital signal, since July 2011, must broadcast some of its programs with audiodescription (AD), an audiovisual translation modality that aims to translate images into words for the visually impaired audience. Four years after the implementation of AD in the Brazilian television, it is worth investigating how this translation practice is being applied to this media. In this context, the research project CAD_TV (PosLA/ UECE/ BFP-FUNCAP) was created. The purpose of this paper is to present this project that has the objective to build a corpus of audiodescription screenplays of films and TV series broadcast on different Brazilian TV stations in order to map and to describe its translation strategies, while taking into consideration the differences between each program and narrative genre. To this aim, the research is carrying out the following steps: (1) recording the TV programs; (2) transcribing the audiodescriptions, using the software Subtitle Workshop 2.51; (3) manual tagging of the AD screenplays of each program; (4) reviewing the tags, according to narratological parameters and the creation of new tags fulfilling the standard demands by the corpus built in this research; (5) identification of the most frequent translation strategies of the screenplays, using the software WordSmith Tools; and (6) the description and analysis of the most meaningful and frequent strategies. This research is therefore descriptive in nature and corpus based because it proposes a systematic study (based on narratological and discursive patterns) of the AD of films and series broadcast on Brazilian television by way of an electronic analysis of an annotated corpus. In general, the preliminary results demonstrate that the theme of each program and its narrative structure influence the discursive strategy of its AD screenplay. It is also observed that the translation strategies vary according to the TV station and to the narrative genre. We believe this research seems effective in the investigation of the most frequent translation strategies of the screenplays and can be used to identify possible linguistics and narratological problems that can afterwards be evaluated with visually impaired audience and audiodescribers.

Bionotes:

Renata Mascarenhas completed her Masters in Applied Linguistics at the State University of Ceara (Brazil). In 2012, she defended her doctoral thesis on the audiodescription of a Brazilian detective TV mini-series. She has participated in the audiodescription of a dance and a theatre performance and has written and revised screenplays for the audiodescription of several films. She recently taught AVT for a post graduation course at the State University of Ceara and is currently involved in the research of audiodescription carried out at this institution.

PAPER 11:

Title: In search of parameters for the audiodescription of paintings with the support of audiovisual translation, multimodality and social semiotics

Speaker: Maria Nunes, UECE (Brazil)

Abstract:

This article takes into consideration the assumption that the audiodescription (AD) of works of art is still a field that is only beginning to be explored and researched, allowing new studies to be carried out in the attempt to expand its domains. Thus, it is part of a piece of research which is aimed at finding systematic ways of audiodescribing bidimensional works of art so that they may effectively provide the visually impaired with access to aesthetic experiences through the audiodescription, in this case, of paintings. In this process, alternatives for the ressignification of meanings from a visual code to a verbal one are of Paramount importance, in order to really convey the so much sought and expected aesthetic experience that a work of art might provide. The aim is, therefore, to present an audiodescription of a painting by Dutch painter Pieter Brueghel (c.1525-1569), entitled Hunters in the Snow, preceded by an analysis of the painting, using as support elements of audiovisual translation, multimodality and social semiotics studies. More specifically, the analysis is carried out using as a reference mainly O'Toole (2011), whose model of analysis of works of art provides an insightful way of viewing a work of art, thus allowing the audiodescriber to make informed choices when translating the visual aspects verbally. Theoretically, it is also anchored on Holland (2009), and De Coster e Mühleis (2007), works which provide access to considerations on the process of AD of Works of art founded on previous practical experiences of audiodescription in museums. Following the presentation of the audiodescription, a brief discussion and assessment of how the theoretical works and research so far carried out help to outline some parameters for the audiodescription of bidimensional works of art. Although still in an early stage, the research points to some aspects that may be converted into parameters, as more audiodescriptions are developed.

Bionote:

Maria da Salete Nunes teaches Literature and Translation at the State University of Ceará. Currently, she is working on her doctoral dissertation, which is affilliated to a research group coordinated by Vera Lúcia Santiago Araújo, who is also her supervisor.

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 16:57

Changing the World: Translating Soft and Revolutionary Power
Kathryn Batchelor, University of Nottingham, UK
Sue-Ann Harding, Hamad bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar

The writings of revolutionary figures are such that, by definition, they exert significant impact and influence across the globe. Summaries of those effects are often widely cited and reproduced, but are rarely substantiated, and almost invariably ignore the ramifications of the fact that such texts achieve their impact through translation. Similarly, while nations and global organizations seek to increase their leverage and acceptability through the exertion of soft power, academic analyses of soft power are usually situated within the social sciences, and issues of language and translation remain peripheral, or are passed over in silence. Over and over again, however, research carried out within Translation Studies has revealed the inextricable links between translation and power. Translation, both in the narrower sense of inter-lingual transfer and in the broader metaphorical sense of image-building and representation, has been shown to represent not only a means of establishing and maintaining dominance, but also of resisting it and of revealing the power dynamics that hold between states, multinationals, peoples, cultures and languages. While the bulk of TS research that focuses on connections between power and translation has centred on the West, usually taking formerly colonized cultures as the other pole of study, in this panel we seek to foreground studies of translation and intercultural exchange that do not sit comfortably within these existing paradigms, be that because they focus on 'South-South' interactions, because they involve multiple languages and situations, or because they are concerned with voices from dominated cultures but use languages associated with hegemony. In many cases, such studies are likely to be carried out through collaboration, since expertise in multiple non-global languages is rarely the preserve of a single researcher. Our second focus in this panel is therefore the exploration of innovative and collaborative research methodologies, both within and between TS and neighbouring disciplines.

The panel is divided into four sessions. In the first two sessions, Revolutionary power: Frantz Fanon and Revolutionary power continued: Marx and Engels, three members of the team of scholars collaborating on a multi-authored international project exploring the links between the translations of works by Frantz Fanon and their connections to revolutionary movements around the world will present the findings of their research. A further two papers will be presented by scholars working collaboratively to investigate the translation of radical texts, with a focus on the translations of works by Marx and Engels into the English and Greek languages. Both teams will also reflect on the benefits and challenges of working collaboratively across international borders and linguistic limitations in order to move beyond the presentation of isolated case studies and to benefit from a range of methodological approaches and specific expertise. Three other members of the Fanon team will be presenting papers in later sessions of the panel, and will be able to complement the breadth and detail of the first session by contributing to the discussions that follow on from these papers where appropriate. In the third session, Soft power and soft war, two of the papers will explore China's current efforts to develop its soft power programme through translation, the first in general and theoretical terms, the second in relation to the specificities of the 21st century Sino-African relationship. The third paper in this group will present a study of the USA's efforts to exert soft power through its Swahili translation project, Maisha Amerika, Uislamu Amerika (Life in America, Islam in America), in a post 9/11 context, while the final paper will examine the related concept of 'soft war', exploring the Iranian state's efforts to control the translation of children's literature in order to counter the perceived erosion of Islamic values by the West. In the final session, Conveying and (re)defining political ideas and ideologies, the focus will be on translation's role in the communication and interpretation of political ideas and ideologies, exposing the power dynamics that are at stake in the way translations are carried out or reviewed, or enlisted for a range of political and historiographical ends. The papers draw on case studies from a range of understudied linguistic and cultural contexts, the first focussing on historiographical studies in Latin America, the second on collaborative activist online translation in Canada and Brazil, and the third on the construction of solidarity with postcolonial countries in Poland.

For informal enquiries: [KathrynDOTBatchelorATnottinghamDOTacDOTuk]

kathrynbatchelor

Kathryn Batchelor Associate Professor of Translation and Francophone Studies at the University of Nottingham, UK. Her publications include Decolonizing Translation: Francophone African Novels in English Translation (2009); Translating Thought/Traduire la pensée (2010), co-edited with Yves Gilonne; and Intimate Enemies: 'Translation in Francophone Contexts (2013), co-edited with Claire Bisdorff. She is currently leading two major collaborative research projects, Building Images: Exploring 21st Century Sino-African Dynamics Through Cultural Exchange and Translation and Frantz Fanon in and through Translation. She is also Chair of the ARTIS Steering Board (Advancing Research in Translation and Interpreting Studies).

 

 Sue-Ann-HardingSue-Ann Harding is Assistant Professor at the Translation and Interpreting Institute under the auspices of Qatar Foundation. Her research interests are in translation and social-narrative theory, media representations and configurations of violent conflict, and explorations of intralingual and intersemiotic translation with regards to collective memory and issues of state, (national) identity, civil society and social justice. She is the author of Beslan: Six Stories of the Siege (2012) and several articles in leading translation studies journals. She is also a co-editor of Translation Studies Abstracts Online, the Review Editor for The Translator and interim Chair of the IATIS Executive Council.

 

 

 

SESSION PLAN

INTRODUCTION TO WHOLE PANEL (10 minutes): Kathryn Batchelor

SESSION 1: Revolutionary power: Frantz Fanon

PAPER 1:

Title: Fanon in Arabic: tracks and traces

Speaker: Sue-Ann Harding, Hamad bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar

PAPER 2:

Title: Fanon in Iran

Speaker: Farzaneh Farahzad, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran

PAPER 3:

Title: Translating Race and Resistance: Re-Reading Fanon in Brazilian Contexts

Speaker: Christopher Larkosh, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA

DISCUSSION (30 minutes)

SESSION 2: Revolutionary power continued: Marx and Engels

PAPER 4:

Title: The International Labour Movement Refracted: The Communist Manifesto in English

Speaker: Stefan Baumgarten, Bangor University, Wales

PAPER 5:

Title: Collaborative Translation and the Making of The Selected Works of Marx and Engels

Speaker: Christina Delistathi, Brunel University, London

DISCUSSION (20 minutes)

SESSION 3: Soft power and soft war

PAPER 6:

Title: Translation and Soft Power in a Globalizing World: A Chinese Perspective

Speaker: You Wu, Shanghai University, China

PAPER 7:

Title: Translation, soft power and intercultural power dynamics in the context of 21st century Sino-African power relations

Speaker: Kathryn Batchelor, University of Nottingham, UK

PAPER 8:

Title: Translation Post-9/11: The US Embassy Swahili Project in Kenya

Speaker: Alamin Mazrui, Rutgers University, USA

PAPER 9:

Title: Translators: reinforcing or challenging hegemony? A strucurationist approach to the translation of children's literature in Iran

Speaker: Shabnam Saadat Arkan Najd, University of Manchester, UK

DISCUSSION (40 minutes)

SESSION 4: Conveying and (re)defining political ideas and ideologies

PAPER 10:

Title: Against Ventriloquism: Notes on the Uses and Misuses of the translation of subaltern knowledge in Latin America

Speaker: Daniel Inclan, National University of Mexico

PAPER 11:

Title: Collaborative Activist Translation 2.0 and 'slow politics' in the 21st Century: Changing the World one Semi-Colon at a Time

Speaker: Raúl Ernesto Colón Rodríguez, University of Ottawa, Canada

PAPER 12:

Title: Translation and Solidarity: Postcolonial-Polish Relationships at the end of the 20th Century

Speaker: Dorota Goluch, University of Cardiff, UK

DISCUSSION (30 minutes)

CONCLUSION TO WHOLE PANEL (10 MINUTES): Sue-Ann Harding

PAPER TITLES, ABSTRACTS AND BIONOTES

PAPER 1:

Title: Fanon in Arabic: tracks and traces

Speaker: Sue-Ann Harding, Hamad bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar

Abstract:

This paper is part of the research project "Frantz Fanon In and Through Translation", which is based at the University of Nottingham's Department of French and Francophone Studies and partly funded by the British Academy. As stated on the project website, this collaborative investigation seeks to address the gap in scholarship that overlooks the fact that Fanon's texts achieved their widespread impact through translation, and thus explores "the links between the translations of works by Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) and their reception in a range of linguistic and cultural contexts". Of all the languages into which the Francophone Fanon has been translated, Arabic, perhaps, holds a special position, given both the contiguity and separation of the two languages in Fanon's life, work and politics, as shaped by his experience of revolutionary Algeria; Fanon wrote, for example, in French for the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) paper El Moudjahid, its Arabic title shared by both its French and Arabic editions, even though neither was a translation of the other. This paper is a pioneering study of the Arabic translation of Fanon's Les Damnés de la Terre (1961), first published in Beirut by Dar At-tali'aa (Vanguard Press), just two years after the original, and translated by Sami Darubi (1921-1976) and Jamal Al-Atasi (1922-2000), early ideologues and politically active members of the Syrian Baath Party. From its first appearance during the tumultuous post-independence years of frequent coups, pan-Arab nationalism and shifting alliances in the Middle East, to the anniversary edition published by the Algerian government to mark the fiftieth year of the Revolution and Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962), and the most recent edition (2013) published in Cairo after what is known as the Arab Spring, this paper draws on a combination of micro- and macro-level lexical, textual and paratextual analyses never before carried out on this material, and uses social narrative theory to track the changing editions of this Arabic translation, tracing the ways in which Fanon in Arabic has been disseminated, narrated, framed, received and neglected in the Arab world. Furthermore, the paper reflects on the methodological challenges and innovations arising out of a foray beyond the researchers' typical areas of expertise. These include inter-disciplinary engagement in terms of historical studies and biography; networks of collaboration and cooperation; the use of machine translation tools; and the detective work necessary to overcome the challenges of imprecision and accessibility when working with Arabic bibliographical sources.

Bionote: Sue-Ann Harding is Assistant Professor at the Translation and Interpreting Institute under the auspices of Qatar Foundation. Her research interests are in translation and social-narrative theory, media representations and configurations of violent conflict, and explorations of intralingual and intersemiotic translation with regards to collective memory and issues of state, (national) identity, civil society and social justice. She is the author of Beslan: Six Stories of the Siege (2012) and several articles in leading translation studies journals. She is also a co-editor of Translation Studies Abstracts Online, the Review Editor for The Translator and interim Chair of the IATIS Executive Council.

PAPER 2:

Title: Fanon in Iran

Speaker: Farzaneh Farahzad, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran

Abstract:

Fanon's major works were introduced in Iran by political activists who translated in order to give voice to an uprising opposition in the early 1970s. Four major works of Fanon's have been translated into Persian, and retranslated and reprinted, particularly before the Islamic Revolution in 1979. Of these, two stand out. The first is Five years of the Algerian War, translated in 1973 by a leftist activist. The book received additional credit in Post-Revolution Iran for its elaborate discussion of hijab as a means of anti-colonialism. The second is The Wretched of the Earth, translated by Ali Shariati around 1971, an influential figure and activist in the anti-Shah movement who reread and redefined Islam in a pre-revolution context. This translation , which was reprinted several times and in large numbers both before and after the Revolution, is what introduced Fanon to Iranian readers. Shariati was already known and admired in Iran, not only for his activism, but basically for his reinterpretation of Islam which excited the religious elite in the country. His books were reprinted and sold in great numbers. His lectures were recorded, distributed and heard in the opposition circles inside and outside the borders. He was already visible when he translated Fanon and had already gained a voice in the silence of the regime of the time. He used Fanon to add to the credibility of his own voice. It seems that he did not use Fanon to gain a voice, but rather lent his voice to Fanon in order to benefit from its resonance.

Bionote: Farzaneh Farahzad is Associate Professor of translation studies at Allameh Tabataba'i University in Tehran. Her main research interests are in the areas of translation theory and research, translation criticism, and critical approaches in Translation Studies. She is the author of several textbooks for the translator training program in Iran, and has also written many articles in Persian and English in translation studies. She is curriculum developer of translator training programs in Iran, editor-in-chief of the Iranian Translation Studies Journal, freelance translator and simultaneous interpreter.

PAPER 3:

Title: Translating Race and Resistance: Re-Reading Fanon in Brazilian Contexts

Speaker: Christopher Larkosh, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA

Abstract:

This talk will focus on the ways that Brazilian intellectuals during the period of military dictatorship (1964-1985) have accessed and interpreted the works of Frantz Fanon, whether juxtaposed alongside that of well-known thinkers such as the Brazilian pedagogical theorist Paulo Freire, the work of artists such as the Cinema Novo director Glauber Rocha, or members of the growing Black student movements of the 1960s and 70s. While Fanon's work was known to intellectuals in the French original as early as 1960 after the visit of Sartre and de Beauvoir to Brazil, and Fanon's best known text, Les damnés de la terre, had appeared in a Brazilian translation as early as 1968, Brazilians during the period of military dictatorship naturally had to contend with censorship as part of the overall atmosphere of political oppression. Many of his works were not necessarily read in Portuguese translation, but were often accessed in other languages such as Spanish and/or English translations or the French original.

What is of most interest to me for the purposes of this talk, however, is how Fanon's work, whether in the original or in translation, informed discussions on race and resistance to the military regime, whether by left-wing political militants or others who became familiar with him later in less explicitly Marxist theoretical contexts such as those proposed by postcolonial theory. Other questions also emerge from such a discussion: for example, did Afro-Brazilian thinkers, writers and activists access and read Fanon differently from their more Europeanized intellectual cohorts, and if so how? How did Brazilians translate, interpret or adapt Fanon's work to the particularities of national culture, racial politics and understandings of ethnic identity, and how do they continue to do so today, in the context of extreme economic, social and political inequality and recurrent instances of popular resistance, ones that cannot be completely understood without taking questions of lingering racial inequality into account? What sorts of limitations have been identified, or dissonance with Brazilian thinkers, especially those of African descent?

Bionote: Christopher Larkosh is Associate Professor of Portuguese at UMass Dartmouth (USA), and Visiting Associate Professor in the Translation and Interpreting Institute at Hamad bin Khalifa University in Doha, Qatar (2013-2014). He has published and lectured widely on numerous global languages and cultures, and is the author of numerous articles in academic translation journals, such as TTR and The Translator. He is the editor of the collected volume Re-Engendering Translation: Transcultural Practice, Gender/Sexuality and the Politics of Alterity (St Jerome, 2011) and is a co-editor of a forthcoming volume entitled KulturConfusão: German-Brazilian Interculturalities (De Gruyter, 2015).

PAPER 4:

Title: The International Labour Movement Refracted: The Communist Manifesto in English

Speaker: Stefan Baumgarten, Bangor University, Wales

Abstract:

This paper attempts to sketch the conceptual representation of the international labour movement, a movement that was spearheaded by the Communist Manifesto. Co-authored by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, this revolutionary text was originally published as a short German-language pamphlet in London in 1848. Designed as an incendiary polemic and aiming to spark a nascent international labour movement, just as most canonical works, the Communist Manifesto went, over the last 150 years or so, through innumerable translational refractions, as well as intra- and intersemiotic interpretations and modifications. By broadly contextualising the English-language versions within their respective historical and socio-economic conditions of production and reception, I will first argue for a more prominent space accorded to economic and associated socio-psychological factors in translation research, factors which are too often ignored or sidelined in mainstream descriptivist, positivist-cognitive, and even culture-oriented translation theories. Especially when English is involved as a language in the translational encounter, it is arguably even more significant to not overlook the critical centrality of the economic factor prior to the need to position the translational objects of investigation in their respective target-literary, psycho-dynamic and ideological environments. Secondly, by considering the Communist Manifesto's immense popularity and continuing centrality for international class struggle, and against the background of a research project in which I investigate the repercussions of both soft and revolutionary power on the translation of radical scholarly texts, this paper aims to sketch the power dynamics pertaining to the English interlingual refractions of this internationally received and extensively refracted work. And finally, by comparing the results of an extensive case study of the text's Greek translations with my own preliminary analysis of some English translations within their respective contextual surroundings, I will attempt to draw some preliminary conclusions about the fate of the international labour movement in the Anglophone hemisphere – a hegemonic sociocultural landscape that remains to be violently enthralled to the reified principles of free market liberalism.

Bionote: Stefan Baumgarten is Lecturer in German and Translation Studies at Bangor University, Wales. His research concentrates on the interrelation of translation, power and ideology. Apart from a theoretical focus on the sociology of translation and on ideology research, he is interested in the role of translation in globalisation processes and specifically in its impact on political and critical philosophical discourse. Additional research interests concern questions of translation historiography and the role of translation in maintaining 'epistemological' diversity.

PAPER 5:

Title: Title: Collaborative Translation and the Making of The Selected Works of Marx and Engels

Speaker: Christina Delistathi, Brunel University, London

Abstract:

Although collaborative translation is an old practice which has been documented as taking place in different contexts and for different purposes (translation of religious texts, feminist translation, crowdsourcing), the history of collaborative practices is a neglected area of research in Translation Studies. This paper aims at furthering our understanding of translation as a collaborative act by recording the process of translating revolutionary political texts from The Selected Works of Marx and Engels into Greek by a counter-hegemonic institution, the Communist Party of Greece in the early 1950s. It addresses the questions of who collaborates with whom, for what purposes, at which points of text production, in what circumstances and whether collaboration in this instance resulted in different ways of translating political texts. Based on unpublished archival material and combining historical research with close reading of the introduction to the publication, the paper examines the organisation of the party's Translation Department (based in Bucharest and staffed by political refugees who had fled Greece in the aftermath of the Civil War (1946-1949)), the political context in which it operated, the workflow and the working and living conditions of the translators and other participants in the translation process. Evidence suggests that translation was a multi-layered and multi-staged process, involving translators, typists, revisers, 'stylists', proof-readers and editors. Translators produced literal versions of TTs, which were then made idiomatic by another group, revised by another and, finally, were approved for publication by the editor, who perhaps used relay translation from the Russian to evaluate the Greek translation. It will be shown that, firstly, despite the professionalization of translation, all references to translators and other participants were effaced from the final publication in favour of the institution, revealing the power dynamics between the institution and the participants in the act of translating; and, secondly, that the organisation of the collaborative process of translation conveys which aspects of the translation process the party considered important. By focusing on translation by a counter-hegemonic institution, the study challenges the 'dominant North' and 'dominated South' dichotomy, and augments our understanding of the diverse ways in which translated literature has been made available at different historical times.

Bionote: Christina Delistathi's research focuses on the translation of political texts by counter-hegemonic institutions and activist networks. She has published on the translations of the Communist Manifesto and their place within the Greek context of political and ideological struggle for the control of Marxist discourse.

PAPER 6:

Title: Translation and Soft Power in a Globalizing World: A Chinese Perspective

Speaker: You Wu, Shanghai University, China

Abstract:

Globalization, characterized as multiculturalism and universalism, brings about an increasingly interconnected world and intensifies linguistic interchange among people living in the "global village". "Hybridity", the conceptual linchpin to interpret this process in the context of global mélange, has gained visibility across many spheres of cultural research, including translation studies, being addressed as the output of dynamic cross-cultural communication. Along with the cultural turn in Translation Studies, the cross-cultural dimension has been highlighted, the function of translation has shifted from mere language transfer to dynamic cultural representation, and translating cultural differences becomes a central issue. Thus, as a bridging means of cross-cultural communication, translation with no doubt plays an important role in resituating and readapting local culture in the global context, which becomes a significant source of a country's defensive and soft power. Translation as revolutionary/defensive power requires translation studies to retain certain problematic political principles to defend cultural alterity and diversity. From the perspective of manipulation and power, translation is a possible vehicle of political engagement and revolutionary agendas. Globalization presents new risks, therefore one of the key issues concerning the connections between culture and globalization relates to cultural security. To ease the tensions triggered by the conflicts of different identities and the cultures behind, translation as both cross-linguistic and cross-cultural practices could play an important role as defensive power. Globalization provides the grounds for the development of soft power, and translation can function as attractive power to promote an understanding of China's ideals, support its economic goals and enhance national security in subtle, wide-ranging, and sustainable ways. The concept of "soft power" derives from a simple dichotomy of defining coercive power as hard power while attractive power as soft power with three parameters, namely, culture, political values and foreign policy. In contrast to its remarkable performance in economy, the cultural influence of China has long been marginalized, which counteracts its international role achieved in the context of global economic integration. In this respect, the soft power strategy, with its emphasis on (re)construction of traditional culture and (re)assertion of cultural identity, becomes crucial in expanding China's international influence, in which translation plays a considerable part. In reviewing existing literatures and analyzing statistical data, this paper argues that globalization presents both opportunities and challenges for translation as soft power. The role of translation has been strengthened in the age of globalization, which in turn leads to its even greater prominence in political arena. Translation is ideology-loaded and political-minded, instead of being an innocent act of disinterested mediation, translation is an important means of constructing identities and configuring the shape of intercultural encounters, which makes it possible as the defensive/revolutionary power vis-à-vis the arising fears regarding a crisis of identities intensified by globalization. Under the guidance of soft-power-oriented policies, translation not only serves as a "charm" tool for public diplomacy and nation branding, but also contributes to export Chinese cultural values. In this respect, promoting translation activities and ensuring sustainable development of translation industry is an essential issue in the long run.

Bionote: WU You is assistant Professor in the School of Foreign Studies, Shanghai University, China, where she is also a research fellow at the Center for Global Studies. She received a Ph. D. in European Civilisation and Society from Université Paris Diderot-Paris VII, France, in 2011. Before joining Shanghai University in 2012, she was international coordinator in Gras Savoye and translator/interpreter in AMARE, France (2010-2011). She is the author of Un siècle de révolution (2013) and a dozen papers in Chinese. Her research interest focuses on translation and intercultural communication, cultural policies and EU-China relations.

PAPER 7:

Title: Translation, soft power and intercultural power dynamics in the context of 21st century Sino-African power relations

Speaker: Kathryn Batchelor, University of Nottingham, UK

Abstract:

In the context of China's ever-increasing involvement with Africa and of the competing and conflicting discourses that surround that involvement, this paper presents two sets of findings from an AHRC project exploring contemporary Sino-African dynamics through the prism of cultural exchange and translation. Firstly, using frameworks that outline connections between translation import/export patterns and power relations, such as those developed by Itamar Even-Zohar, Richard Jacquemond), José Lambert and Lawrence Venuti, the paper summarizes literary translation imports and exports between China and Africa between the years 2000 and 2014 and assesses the extent to which the patterns that emerge are characteristic of north-south or south-south exchange patterns, and thus how far they support or counter the official discourse put forward by Chinese and African governments, which casts the relationship as one of south-south co-operation. At the same time, the paper interrogates the usefulness of existing paradigms of translation dynamics in the context of situations with complex linguistic and cultural pasts, or where writers are likely to belong to a dominated culture but at the same time write and read works in languages normally associated with hegemony. Secondly, drawing on two examples of literary translations into Chinese that do not conform to the usual patterns governing translation selection, the paper suggests that translation can represent an important, if often overlooked, soft power tool, offering significant media opportunities for conveying a positive intercultural relations image, even if the translations themselves do not enjoy huge success in the target culture. By exploring the processes through which these translations came to be published in Chinese and contextualizing them within patterns of agency in translation selection more generally, the paper argues that these instances of soft power translation point to imbalances in the Sino-African relationship, in contrast with official discourses that stress equality and mutual benefit.

Bionote: Kathryn Batchelor is Associate Professor of Translation and Francophone Studies at the University of Nottingham, UK. Her publications include Decolonizing Translation: Francophone African Novels in English Translation (2009); Translating Thought/Traduire la pensée (2010), co-edited with Yves Gilonne; and Intimate Enemies: 'Translation in Francophone Contexts (2013), co-edited with Claire Bisdorff. She is currently leading two major collaborative research projects, Building Images: Exploring 21st Century Sino-African Dynamics Through Cultural Exchange and Translation and Frantz Fanon in and through Translation. She is also Chair of the ARTIS Steering Board (Advancing Research in Translation and Interpreting Studies).

PAPER 8:

Title: Translation Post-9/11: The US Embassy Swahili Project in Kenya

Speaker: Alamin Mazrui, Rutgers University, USA

Abstract:

In January 2002, a few months after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the USA, the US Embassy in Kenya launched a Swahili translation project, Maisha Amerika, Uislamu Amerika (Life in America, Islam in America) in a bid to capture the "hearts and minds" of East African Muslims. Many of its essays are Swahili translations of selected news and interpretive items from the Washington File, a product of the Office of International Information Programs of the US Department of State providing official texts of the US government, policy statements, features and byline articles. This study will seek to demonstrate how this translation project of the US Embassy was an integral part of the American response to a particular projection of an al-Qaeda offensive on the East African front. To the extent to which the translation project is a component of the arsenal of war (on terrorism), it becomes a weapon which, galvanized to maximum effect, takes for granted the idea that mistranslation is part of a legitimate strategy in a time of war. Theoretically, then, mistranslation here emerges as a concrete expression of the art of war, and as part and parcel of the way in which texts and images are read and (re)constituted. And if a state of war is partly a manifestation of irreconcilable differences, it embeds a condition of non-translatability, a condition in which we can often expect translation failure. The hope is that this study will contribute to our understanding of translation as a (soft) weapon of war. The data for the study is drawn from all the available issues of Maisha Amerika, Uislamu Amerika since its founding in 2002. These issues have been collected and coded. This material is complemented by a body of qualitative information based on a series of open-ended interviews with a (snowball) sample of Muslim respondents in East Africa intended to gauge their (subjective) responses to Maisha Amerika, Uislamu Amerika. In both instances, the data – including visual materials -- will be subjected to close textual (discourse) analysis. The results of the study will be entirely qualitative. The analysis will demonstrate how the texts, both in their selection and translation, enact particular significations that answer to the condition of war (on terrorism). The results will also reveal that, on the average, local responses to the project has been hostile, corresponding to the same condition of war that led to its establishment in the first place.

Bionote: Alamin M. Mazrui is Professor of sociolinguistics and literature with the Department of African, Middle Eastern and South Asian Languages and Literatures at Rutgers University, USA. A Swahili poet and playwright, he has authored, co-authored and co-edited over ten books and written widely on the political sociology of language and literature in Africa and on comparative cultural studies.

PAPER 9:

Title: Translators: reinforcing or challenging hegemony? A strucurationist approach to the translation of children's literature in Iran

Speaker: Shabnam Saadat Arkan Najd, University of Manchester, UK

Abstract:

The increasing acknowledgement of translation as an influential factor in socio-political changes highlights its role as a locale for power within which agent-structure interaction occurs. This irrefutable power container and its potential to shape perceptions has been controlled, banned or exploited by hegemonic groups throughout history, for which there is no shortage of evidence. This study explores children's literature domain since it is ideologically, morally and didactically surrounded and it is where dominant institutions often start the inculcation of their values to build up the prospective supporting ideologues, to maintain hegemony and to preserve order. Adopting a sociological approach, this paper draws on Giddens's structuration theory to address the dynamic nexus of structure-agency and rationalise translators' role in constructing and perpetuating the contexts within which they face constraints. The very structures which impose themselves as constraints to translators are enablers for the agents invested with power. Although the rudiment of change lies in the actions, it is the asymmetrical access of agents to resources that maintains the hierarchy of power and directs their actions and decisions. In an attempt to expand the use of structuration theory in the domain of translation, this study focuses on Iran to investigate how translation can be instrumentalised to promote certain values and to instil intended norms. Iran has an elaborate monitoring apparatus which is a barricade at the frontline of the soft war, the term frequently used in the state mass media referring to the cultural and ideological effort of the West to erode Islamic values and to influence Iranian society's worldview. In a developmental design, the data was gathered from quantitative and qualitative sources. The bibliographical catalogues of all children and adolescents' books published in Iran during the years 1978-1993 and 2009-2012 were consulted to have a broad picture of children's literature publication in Iran during the times of crises and post-crises. The quantitative analysis revealed that there is an overall tendency to proliferate domestic literature, and the rate of the translation for adolescents has been remarkably lower than translation for younger group. This gave impetus for further investigation in a smaller frame, from translators' point of view, since they are the first-hand source to impart their rationalisations of decisions. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the factors which permeate translators' decisions and their reflexively deployed strategies to cope with or potentially flout structurally imposed constraints. As per the qualitative analysis, translators' decisions are structurally informed, and this might account for the significantly smaller proportion of translated literature for adolescents as well as the emergence of non-professional volunteer translations circulated on the internet, as an instance of resistance and counteract against structures of power. This study shows that structuration theory presents an inclusive framework to analyse how structures of signification, domination and legitimation are instantiated in translation activity in the form of communication of meaning, exercise of power, and evaluation of conduct, how translation contributes to their reproduction and thus their reinforcement, and how it can flout structures and bring about change.

Bionote: Shabnam Saadat is a final year PhD student in Translation Studies at the University of Manchester, where she was a member of the organising committee of IPCITI 2014. Her research focuses on translation of children's literature in Iran, and aims to expand the use of Giddens's structuration theory in the field of translation studies. She attained a BA in English/Persian Translation and an MA in Translation Studies from Kharazmi University in Tehran, Iran. She is also a translator, and has published seven books so far.

PAPER 10 (in Spanish):

Title: Against Ventriloquism: Notes on the Uses and Misuses of the translation of subaltern knowledge in Latin America

Speaker: Daniel Inclan, National University of Mexico

This paper will contrast two forms of translation of subaltern knowledge in Latin America, using the frames of the conceptual history and the sociology of knowledge. On the one hand, in the last two decades, decolonial studies scholars have attempted to propose an alternative way of thinking Latin America by focusing on the knowledge of local communities. The ways of knowing of these subaltern groups have played a key role in these theoretical endeavours. The translation strategies used by decolonial studies' scholars aim at putting the knowledge of indigenous populations at the centre of a decolonizing intellectual project. While the importance of the decolonial studies' work is undeniable, it should be noted that their translations tend to resemble a ventriloquist performance. That is, there is a tendency to speak on behalf of subaltern groups, rather than to translate their discourse. Moreover, the translations carried out by decolonial studies' scholars still need to overcome: 1) the victimization of the local discourses, 2) an essentialist vision of identities, and 3) a lack of empirical work within the communities. By failing to go beyond these colonial remainders, decolonial translations also fail to show the internal contradictions of subaltern groups, their complex historicity, and their conflictual relationship with hegemonic dynamics. On the other hand, long before the raise of decolonial studies, Bolivia became a stage of an extremely interesting translation project involving indigenous knowledge. In the 1980s, the Taller de Historia Oral Andina (THOA, Workshop of Andean Oral History) developed an epistemic process, whose main goal was recovering indigenous experiences for building new analytical frames. A historiographical project, which was focused on local communities was then undertaken with the objective of setting the grounds for a critique of the marginalizing life conditions of indigenous communities. Translation was one of the guiding principles of this historiographical project. The THOA reinterpreted the history of the Bolivian Altiplano through the oral histories of Aymara and Quechua communities. Within THOA, translation had a clear political goal, which could not be reduced to rhetorical intentions. It was not a matter of uncovering a hidden history, but of criticizing a particular social organization. Translation was used as a tool in the struggle of these communities for articulating their histories in their own terms. Because THOA is practically unknown in other Latin American countries, its multiple contributions to rearticulate subaltern discourses through translation have been understudied. By contrasting these two translation projects, this paper will shed light on the uses and misuses of the translation of subaltern knowledge in the Latin American context at the end of the 20th century, and will argue for studying translation processes such as the one undertaken by THOA.

Bionote: Daniel Inclan is Professor of the Postgraduate Program of Latin American studies at the National University of Mexico. His research interests focus on the theory and philosophy of history in Latin America after dictatorships process in Bolivia, Argentina and Chile and on economic process in the indigenous communities in Bolivia. His recent publications include: 'De la política a la historia. Historiografías y estéticas en posdictadura', Acta sociológica no 61. , 2013; 'El sujeto político en el pensamiento boliviano', Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos, no. 30, 2012. He is also the autor of El problema del sujeto de la historia (forthcoming).

PAPER 11 (in Spanish):

Title: Collaborative Activist Translation 2.0 and 'slow politics' in the 21st Century: Changing the World one Semi-Colon at a Time

Speaker: Raúl Ernesto Colón Rodríguez, University of Ottawa, Canada

Abstract:

As a consequence of truthiness' pervasive character that bombards citizens from everywhere and on almost every topic, agents from civil society mobilize in order to demand sanity, and to promote an agenda of rational and complex reflection and analysis. This phenomenon gives rise to a new sociopolitical ethics named 'slow politics'. Translation figures in the change that civil society conveys through different activism projects, with both collaborative and non-professional forms of translation gaining ground. New formats for the dissemination of translations have been developed (web sites), translators are organizing and functioning in new horizontal forms, and these are partially replacing traditional vertical activist forms of organisation (spontaneous non-professional translators' groups), and new tactics and strategies are developing, giving pre-eminence to pluralistic ideological engagements. As a result, translation is engaged today in a new wave of the never-ending confrontation and dialogue between the dialectics of metaphor and the dialogics of metonymy in political discourse. The former are closely related to exclusivist binaries, the latter allowing, through adjacencies, dialogue and confrontation at the same time. This is the main reason why Complexity theory is pertinent to this study, its dialogic principle being a fundamental theoretical tool for the analysis of these new realities.

In this presentation, the author will compare two corpora of 15 originals and their translations of two recent experiences of collaborative activist translation online, from two countries of the Americas: Canada and Brazil. Levels of usage of metaphor and metonymy will be measured between original and translation, with the help of the bilingual term extracting software SynchroTerm 2013.Qualitative analysis will follow, through the study of commented published translations, in order to determine the impact, acceptance and reactions to this new textual forms.

In Canada, the site Translating the printemps érable, linked to the student movement in Quebec of 2012, constitutes a paradigmatic example of what we call here collaborative activist translation 2.0. In Brazil, the web site Outras Palavras presents articles translated into Portuguese, penned by leading authors of the international left and reflects a preliminary stage of development in collaborative activist translation, but one already far from 1.0 activism. Both cases allow us to grasp the social context and projection in which those translational practices are introduced and the way in which translators of these projects become representatives of a neorational message, with different, but interlinked ideological nuances, maybe in the new spirit of 'slow politics'.

Bionote: Raúl Ernesto Colón Rodríguez is a PhD candidate in Translation Studies at the University of Ottawa. Raúl has worked on editorial and cinematographic translations in Canada (2007-2009), completed a Masters degree in Translation Studies in 2011 (also at University of Ottawa) and since then has been working on his PhD thesis on the subject of collaborative activist translation in Canada and Brazil. He has published articles, translations and book reviews in Canadian, Spanish, Colombian, Polish and Brazilian publications.

PAPER 12:

Title: Translation and Solidarity: Postcolonial-Polish Relationships at the end of the 20th Century

Speaker: Dorota Goluch, University of Cardiff, UK

Abstract:

Indebted to the 1990s reflection on postcolonial translation and inspired by the recent shifts towards broader paradigms of translation and power or translation and activism, this research contributes to theorizing links between translation and solidarity, a term which punctuates for example Spivak's 1993 Classic essay 'The Politics of Translation', but also features strongly in very recent debates about power, activism and revolution (see for instance the conference call for papers for 'Translation and the Many Languages of Resistance', Cairo, 2015). 'Solidarity' is also relevant for my case study – reception of translated postcolonial literature in Poland – because it lets me think about Polish, or Eastern European, and 'postcolonial' relationships beyond the colonizer/colonized divide and because the term surfaces in Polish discourses around postcolonial literature.

The paper examines the idea that translated postcolonial literature may have led Polish readers to see similarities between 'postcolonial' and Polish historical experiences, which in turn might enable the forging of Polish-'postcolonial' solidarity. It is based on a reading of almost one thousand Polish reviews of translated postcolonial prose – including Nigerian, Algerian and other African works, as well as Indian, Middle Eastern and Caribbean texts – from the period 1970–2010. Using elements of discourse analysis, the reading reveals that postcolonial narratives featuring political and cultural subjugation, revolutionary struggle and postcolonial turbulences resonate for the reviewers with Poland's history: the Partitions (1795–1918), German occupation (1939–1945), Soviet domination (1945–1989) and, to an extent, post-1989 globalization and U.S. American influences. Selected examples are presented in the paper.

Then, it is suggested that the awareness of historical similarities may imply a shared postcolonial sensitivity and, possibly, solidarity. To support the supposition, the paper employs Richard Rorty's view that a localized and historically-bound sense of similarity – as opposed to similarity predicated solely on the universalist notion of common humanity – can pave a way for solidarity. Yet, it also problematizes the finding, signalling that the potential expressions of solidarity are channelled and modelled through existing Polish discourses on postcolonial countries, including the colonialist discourse of European superiority, the Cold War politics of 'solidarity and aid' towards the Third World, the democratic rhetoric of the anti-Communist 'Solidarity' movement and the Western idiom of charity for developing countries.

Bionote: Dorota Gołuch is a lecturer in translation at Cardiff University. In 2013 she completed a PhD on the Polish translation and reception of postcolonial literature at University College London; she also holds a magister degree from the Jagiellonian University and an MA in Postcolonial Studies from the University of Kent. Dorota has written book chapters on the ethics and methods of translating postcolonial literature (focusing on Chinua Achebe and Amos Tutuola). Currently she is writing about translation and solidarity, while also beginning to work on memory, multilingualism and translation in the Auschwitz Museum.

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 16:46

Innovation in Bible Translation: History, Theory, Practice
Jacobus Naude and Cynthia Miller-Naude
University of the Free State (Bloemfontein, South Africa)

 

Although Bible translation is rightly considered a variety of religious translation, in many respects Bible translators have operated outside of the field of translation studies in general. This panel seeks to bring Bible translation into conversation with translation studies by highlighting recent developments in Bible translation with respect to the implementation of the sociological turn in translation studies.

There are three main areas to be examined: (1) The writing of histories of Bible translation with special attention to their social and cultural impact. Included in this area are the ways in which Bible translation has impacted language groups socially and culturally with respect, for example, to language development and social and economic development. (2) The theory of Bible translation, especially concerning direct and indirect translation, translation as interpretation, and intersemiotic translation. Included in this area are the ways in which Bible translation has approached the issues of foreignisation and indigenisation and the question of respect for the cultural and religious values of the target culture. (3) The practice of Bible translation, especially with respect to orality and non-print media, performance criticism, and technological developments.

For informal enquiries: [millerclATufsDOTacDOTza]

Cynthia and JacobusJacobus A. Naudé (University of the Free State) is a member of the Afrikaans Bible translation project and serves on the advisory board of the Handbook of Translation Studies. He edited Contemporary Translation Studies and Bible Translations (2002), Language Practice: One Profession; Many Applications (2007), Socio-constructive Language Practice: Training in the South African Context (2008), Bible Translation and the Indigenous (2009).

Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé (University of the Free State) has been a consultant for Bible translators in Africa since 1992. She has published on the translation of biblical proverbs in African languages (2005), religious translation in Africa (2011), Lamentations in the King James Version (2012), ideology and translation strategy in Bible translation (2013), alterity, orality and performance in Bible translation.

SESSION PLAN

Each paper is allocated with a 20 minutes time slot + 10 minutes discussion.

Discussion time at the end of each paper

PAPER TITLES, ABSTRACTS AND BIONOTES

Introduction to the panel

Title: Innovation in Bible Translation

Speaker: Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé, University of the Free State

Bionote:

Cynthia Miller-Naudé (University of the Free State) has been a consultant for Bible translators in Africa since 1992. She has published on the translation of biblical proverbs in African languages (2005), religious translation in Africa (2011), Lamentations in the King James Version (2012), ideology and translation strategy in Bible translation (2013), alterity, orality and performance in Bible translation.

PAPER 1:

Title: Bible Translation and Alterity from an Orthodox Perspective

Speaker: Simon Crisp

Abstract: Much recent discussion in Bible translation has turned on questions of alterity. The wish to reflect in translation the essential otherness of the biblical text has come more clearly into focus as readers have increasingly become dissatisfied with the so-called functionally equivalent Bible translations which predominated in the second half of the twentieth century, largely as a result of the work of Eugene Nida. The sharp distinction made by Nida between equivalence of form and equivalence of meaning, together with a strong emphasis on idiomatic communication of meaning at the expense of the form of the source text, has over time been found unsatisfactory by readers looking for translations which reflect more clearly the status of the Bible as sacred text. In part these concerns have been driven by an increasing engagement of Bible translators with the wider world of Translation Studies. Functionalist theory of translation (Vermeer, Nord) in particular has become influential, and Relevance theory (Sperber, Wilson) has been systematically applied to Bible translation by some scholars (Gutt, Pattemore). Most recently attempts have been made to explore ways in which concepts of alterity, developed primarily in literary theory (Kristeva) and social psychology (Levinas), can usefully be applied to Bible translation (Beal, Towner). Nonetheless there remains a significant gap between this more theoretical level of reflection and the actual practice of making Bible translations. Most attempts to preserve in translation the otherness of the biblical text come down to more or less extremely literal renderings which essentially reflect very closely the form of the source text. This paper will suggest that the Orthodox Christian tradition of the understanding of Scripture, with its emphasis upon mystery on the one hand and continuity with Tradition on the other, can provide the basis for an approach to Bible translation which respects alterity without simply turning it into extreme literalness. Illustrative examples from a range of Orthodox-sponsored Bible translation projects will be presented and analysed in support of this claim, and some conclusions will be drawn about Orthodox Bible translation in English in the light of discussions about translation and alterity.

Bionote: Simon Crisp holds a doctorate from the University of Oxford and an MA from the University of Birmingham. He has worked in the field of Bible translation for more than thirty years, and currently serves as Coordinator for Scholarly Editions and Translation Standards with the United Bible Societies. He is partially seconded to the Nida Institute for Biblical Scholarship at the American Bible Society, where he has particular responsibility for program development in the Orthodox world. He has published widely in the areas of Bible translation, hermeneutics and biblical text criticism, and holds an honorary fellowship at the Institute for Textual Scholarship and Electronic Editing at the University of Birmingham.

PAPER 2:

Title: The hero becomes the villain: The representation of biblical concepts in Igbo

Speaker: Uchenna Oyali

Abstract: The hero becomes the villain: The representation of Biblical concepts in Igbo

The Igbo Union Bible (1913) instigated some controversies in Igbo Studies that still rage till date. Because of the numerous dialects Igbo has and the Igbo's lack of a central religious or political power whose dialect the Bible would have been translated into, the Christian missionaries translated the Bible into Union Igbo, an artificial dialect created by combining features of five Igbo dialects. This translation has been condemned because it is not spoken anywhere in Igboland. Achebe (1979 and 1999) blame the slow development of Igbo on it; Nwachukwu (1983: 13) says that the Union Bible 'lives today only on the pages of the old Protestant bible'; while Afigbo (1981: 363) adds that it 'remained the language in which the Bible and Prayer Book were read rather than discussed'. Despite these criticisms on the inability of the Union Igbo to evolve an Igbo literary standard – the original goal of the translators – the Union Bible remained the most used Igbo Bible for about five decades before other translations of the Bible were made into Igbo, and is still the most popular Igbo Bible today (Nkwoka 2000: 327). Thus it is necessary to empirically study some of the effects of this Bible translation on the Igbo language. My aim in this study is to investigate how biblical concepts are represented in the Union Bible. The Igbo had their conceptualizations of the divine and non-corporeal distinct from the Christian view. However, with the translation of the Bible into Igbo, these concepts were introduced into the Igbo language and have, overtime, gradually displaced the Igbo's earlier conceptualizations of the divine. In this study, however, I focus on the strategies adopted by the Union Bible translators in representing these concepts. To achieve this, I first create a corpus of biblical concepts like: saints, spirit, Holy Ghost, devils, the Devil, angel, hell, heaven, God, god, and Satan. While for some of the concepts (like Satan), the translators borrowed the English term, for the others they used already existing Igbo terms for other concepts, in different combinations, to represent the Christian concepts in Igbo. So using insights drawn from Cognitive Semantics, especially Peter Gardenfors (1995) notion of conceptual space, I first analyze the quality dimensions of these Igbo expressions before Christianity came to Igboland. These are got from anthropological reports on the pre-Christian Igbo society as well as from Igbo folklore like proverbs, riddles, songs many of which are immutable and reflect the Igbo perceptions before the coming of Christianity. These quality dimensions are then contrasted with the Biblical concepts to accentuate the process of introducing the Christian concepts into Igbo. An example is the Igbo heroic and trickster deity Ekwensu, which was so valued that the Igbo named villages after it and also use it as personal names. The Christian Devil is translated as Ekwensu, stripping the deity of all its positive qualities.

Bionote: Uchenna Oyali is a Lecturer in the Department of English and Literary Studies, University of Abuja, Nigeria. He got his BA and MA degrees in English Language from the same University before attending Aston University, UK for another MA in Translation Studies. He is now a Junior Fellow with the Bayreuth International Graduate School of African Studies (BIGSAS), Bayreuth University, Germany where he is doing research on the thesis 'Bible translation and language elaboration: The English to Igbo example'. This paper is part of the findings of his PhD thesis.

PAPER 3:

Title: Power and Progress: a look at the Baoule Bible Translation Project

Speaker: Lynell Marchese Zogbo

Abstract:

Missionary-based and missionary-directed Bible translations in Africa were the norm rather than the exception during the major part of the twentieth century. However, due to a number of factors impacting the continent(the end of colonialism and the subsequent waves of anti-colonialism, the 'predicted' expansion of Christianity and rise in church growth, along with the emergence of high level training institutions and a well educated Christian leadership), new attitudes, procedures and structures have emerged. There has been a very noticeable power shift as expatriate-dominated translation projects have given way to African-directed ones. Not surprisingly, such radical change presents tremendous challenges and cannot occur without some degree of conflict.

This paper focuses on a specific translation project in Côte d'Ivoire, the Baoule Bible, begun by American missionaries in the 30's (giving rise to a succession of New Testament versions), a project which continued on from 1960's, in collaboration with UBS and the Alliance biblique de Côte d'Ivoire, culminating in the 1998 publication of a very popular and widely used Baoule Bible. Today a revision of that Bible is almost completed, along with a mother tongue study Bible, the first of its kind in the country. In this paper, we will examine shifts which have occurred as indigenous translators' profiles, training and status have changed, as well as the impact of such shifts on the translation itself.

The translation has obligatorily moved from a rather strict evangelical perspective to a wide inter-confessional one. As the translation becomes more community-oriented, translation style has radically changed, moving away from a free dynamic style to renderings closer to the source. At times, team knowledge of literary stylisics has led to an improved translation. Metaphors which were not permitted in the first Bible (God is 'rock'), due to the potential of cultural mismatch, are now judged admissible. Issues of foreignization and domestication are carefully weighed. How do translation agents (translators, exegetes, consultants, sponsoring organizations) "live" these numerous changes? What tensions arise between the community's desires and vision and the publisher's need for international quality standards?

A history of this project is traced, concentrating on the impact of social change on the inner workings of the translation team and the impact of these shifts on the translation itself.

Bionote: Lynell Marchese Zogbo has a PhD in Linguistics from UCLA (1979). She taught linguistics at the University of Ilorin and San Jose State University. She served as Bible Translation Consultant 1986-2013 with the United Bible Societies and as professor in the Department of Translation, FATEAC, Cote d'Ivoire. She is presently a research associate and visiting lecturer at the University of the Free State (South Africa).

PAPER 4:

Title: A Case Study of the Chinese Union Version of the Holy Bible from the feminist perspective

Speaker: Debbie Sou

Abstract: The translation practice of the Holy Bible has been of the most challenging intercultural and interracial activity for the bible translators at all times because of the rapid and constant growth of a wide readership around the world. The myriads of retranslated and revised versions of this Holy Scripture indicate that there has always been a need for greater accuracy and the consideration of readers' response. Most versions of the Holy Bible in use nowadays are the products of patriarchy, and thus inevitably carry some gender-biased elements, which can appear to be perplexing or even unacceptable in an era when 'Feminist influences have penetrated every denomination' of Christianity. The vernacular Bible in the patriarchal language may create negative perceptions of women in the target culture. Although there are already many revised versions of the Holy Bible paying special attention to the use of gender-neutral or gender-inclusive terms, did the translators of the latest version of the Chinese Union Version (CUV) pay attention to the issue of gender? Have some of the gender issues that exist in various English versions of the Holy Bible been 'automatically' resolved as the text is rendered into contemporary Chinese? And if they did, how is the translator's gender consciousness reflected in the use of third-person pronouns in the two Chinese Union Versions? Citing translation theorists W. Benjamin (1968), S. Simon (1996) and some feminist discourse on Bible translation, this thesis examines the Chinese Union Version Bible (1919) and its updated version, the (RCUV) Revised Chinese Union Version (2010) to see if the RCUV is more gender-conscious than its predecessor. For the purpose of the investigation, the biblical 'fault lines' and the gender-biased language challenged and revised by the feminists are selected and studied together with their corresponding Chinese verses in the CUV and the RCUV. The study has found that the gender-biased lexes in the Chinese Union Version have been updated in the Revised Chinese Union Version; moreover, it is also perceived that an increasing number of Chinese biblical theologians and Chinese readers of the Bible are holding an open attitude towards reading the Bible from the feminist perspective. Therefore, the findings in the paper will provide reference for checking the gender-biased elements in the existing and future revisions of the Chinese Bible.

Bionote: Debbie Sou completed her Master's Degree in Translation Studies two years ago with her Master's thesis in Bible translation from the University of Macau. She also received her Bachelor's Degree in English Studies and Post-graduate Education diploma in the same university. She is now working as an English teacher in a secondary school in Macau. For translation practice, Debbie has been involved constantly in some church simultaneous interpretation services both in English and Chinese since 2009 in her own church in Macau. Her interest is to study any Bible translation work and interpretation practice rendered in today's Chinese Christian denominations.

PAPER 5:

Title: Bible Translation as Intercultural Encounter: Translation as an Interrogative Paradigm

Speaker: Deborah Shadd

Abstract: Recent decades have seen a significant expansion in the theorization of translation and increased complexification of our very understanding of the concept, due in large part to the ongoing elaboration of postcolonial thought and of other theoretical perspectives which have developed in its wake. Moving beyond the notion of translation as a strictly textual process, a number of scholars have begun to recognize translation as a valuable paradigm for interrogating certain other disjunctive cultural and social experiences that increasingly mark our existence in a globalized world and that contribute fundamentally to the formation of identities. In the introduction to their book Post-Colonial Translation: Theory and Practice, for example, Susan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi suggest that colonies could usefully be considered translations of their European originals. Building on this historical example, others have employed a similar paradigm in writing about experiences from migration to education to the construction of multicultural societies as processes of translation. Each of these studies, as well as others like them, presents a concept of translation that is far from prototypical; instead, what emerges is a metaphorical, or better, paradigmatic view of translation that allows us to apply what has been learned from centuries of dialogue about the social and cultural negotiations demanded by textual translation to other non-textual transformative processes. Bible translation is a clear example of a practice positioned at the very juncture of these two broad conceptions of translation – the prototypical and the paradigmatic – being initially concerned with a textual transformation, but inevitably carrying with it much broader implications for a whole series of other potential transformations of identity and community. Having first surveyed the ways this translational paradigm has been employed by scholars to date, this paper will go on to explore how such a paradigm might be usefully applied to the theorization of Bible translation, positioning the textual act of Bible translation as but one element of a broader socially transformative process and providing a single framework within which to address not only linguistic, but also contextual, cultural and social disruptures. Drawing on examples of several Bible translation projects carried out within the Canadian context, this paper will ask whether and to what extent the notion of a translational paradigm may be a useful tool both for deepening our understanding of past conflicts which have emerged in relation to sacred text translation and for helping us envision new and generative possibilities for better situating such projects in the future. In other words, how might expanding the breadth of our translational thinking inform our theorizing of Bible translation, as well as our practice of engaging with the cultural and social aspects of this cross-cultural undertaking?

Bionote:

Deborah Shadd holds the position of Translation Training and Scholarship Associate at the Nida Institute and is Dean of Associates for the Nida School of Translation Studies. Her research focuses on the role of language and education policy in the formation of cultural identities, postcolonial translation theory, and the maintenance and management of Canadian multiculturalism. She has worked as a freelance translator and published a number of articles, including "The Other Side of the Coin: A New Perspective on Translation and Metaphor" (In Other Words, 2009) and "Chasing Ricoeur: In Pursuit of the Translational Paradigm" (New Voices in Translation Studies, 2012).

PAPER 6:

Title: From Orality to Orality: A Sensual Story of Bible Translation

Speaker: James Maxey

Abstract: The histories of the Christian Bible offer a fertile space for the consideration of translation and media. Beyond the sheer number of cultures, languages, and translated material, the sociological dimensions of Bible translation demonstrate the multilateral interactions of commissioners, translators and host communities in highly charged ideological situations. This is particularly evident during the missionary era of the 18-20th centuries, in which Bible translation is implicated in the colonial projects of Europe and North America carried out in the global south. Of the many facets of these colonial projects, the printed book as the preferred medium of translation reflects the bias of those involved in the Bible Translation (BT) industry. In the late 20th century, research in several disciplines – from the classics to ethnopoetics to religious studies to translation studies – highlighted the questions of media and translation. These studies have slowly begun to inform BT. While many in BT have simply substituted oral for the print media while maintaining their ideological agendas, others have understood the epistemological implications in a shift of media and the ideological, theoretical, and methodological ramifications of such a shift. This is evidenced in the emerging theory of Biblical Performance Criticism (BPC). An assertion of BPC is that oral performance was the primary means of communication in antiquity and that this informed how the early biblical material was composed and disseminated. That is to say, that the biblical material was composed to be heard and experienced in performance rather than to be read silently and in isolation from community. This assertion has tremendous implications for the interpretation and translation of the Bible today. The set of questions and the methods for translation change dramatically if one understands the Bible as a result of the interface of media and its portrayal as oral performance. This current study develops themes from previous research in the translation and performance of biblical material in one project in central Cameroon as well as personal experiences of performance and translation. One of the main assertions made in this regard is that this activity is more than translation for performance, but understands performance as translation. Translation studies' view of translation as a creative act and rewriting rather than as an act of recuperation with the results constantly being measured by equivalence encourages BT to be prospective rather than retrospective in its views. This perspective invites BPC to promote the creative production of biblical material that contributes to a sociological understanding of BT beyond linguistics to cultural issues of identity and power along with audience interaction.

Bionote: James Maxey is Associate Dean of the Nida Institute and Dean of Faculty for the Nida School of Translation Studies. He has been involved in translation work in Africa for more than twenty years. His research interests include performance and translation, as well as cultural studies. In addition to numerous journal articles, he is author of From Orality to Orality: A New Paradigm for Contextual Translation of the Bible (Wipf & Stock, 2009) and co-editor of Translating Scripture for Sound and Performance: New Directions in Biblical Studies (Wipf & Stock, 2012).

PAPER 7:

Title: Oral-Written Style and Bible Translation

Speaker: Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé and Jacobus A. Naudé

Abstract: Recent research has shown that the Bible, in general, and the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible), in particular, were composed both by way of oral tradition and scribal activity and that, furthermore, these two aspects cannot be absolutely separated, either chronologically or in terms of importance (Carr 2005, 2011; de Vries 2012; Walton and Sandy 2013). This oral-written interface means that, on the one hand, there are oral features of the biblical tradition, some of which we have access to as "fossilized" remnants within the written text (Rhoads 2012). On the other hand, there are written features that relate both to the literary style of the author(s) and to the influence of scribal redaction and transmission (Polak 1998, 2012). The new field of Biblical Performance Criticism has highlighted the oral background of the biblical text and has suggested that translation must attend to translation of performance, translation for performance and translation as performance (Maxey 2009, 2012; Makutoane, Miller-Naudé and Naudé forthcoming)

In this paper, we examine various aspects of the oral and written styles within the Hebrew source text of the Old Testament as they relate to the ways in which speech and the perception of speech are represented. When speech is retold or represented within a story, the storyteller has the option to provide a metapragmatic analysis of the "original" speech event. Most commonly, these metapragmatic comments take the shape of quotative frames, which introduce the represented speech and specify various pragmatic features of it, such as the original speaker, the original addressee, the nature of the speech event, or the reason for the speech event. The metapragmatic variety encountered within the Hebrew Bible is usually described as the work of authors/redactors and attributed to written literary style. In this paper we first examine evidence which suggests that at least some of the metapragmatic variety relates instead to strategies employed by the storytellers/performers of oral texts. We then explore the ways in which various kinds of oral and written style may be encountered in translations of the biblical text.

Bionote: Cynthia Miller-Naudé (University of the Free State) has been a consultant for Bible translators in Africa since 1992. She has published on the translation of biblical proverbs in African languages (2005), religious translation in Africa (2011), Lamentations in the King James Version (2012), ideology and translation strategy in Bible translation (2013), alterity, orality and performance in Bible translation.

Jacobus Naudé (University of the Free State) is a member of the Afrikaans Bible translation project and serves on the advisory board of the Handbook of Translation Studies. He edited Contemporary Translation Studies and Bible Translations (2002), Language Practice: One Profession; Many Applications (2007), Socio-constructive Language Practice: Training in the South African Context (2008), Bible Translation and the Indigenous (2009).

PAPER 8:

Title: "Transposition or Translation" Misunderstanding of Bantu Cultural Semios: The case of John 10:34c

Speaker: Edouard Kitoko Nsiku

Abstract: The verse of the Gospel of John 10: 34c: "ego eipa theoi este" (literally, 'I said you are gods') has been a vexing issue among biblical scholars and translators. Several reasons are provided to show how difficult it is to determine exactly what the source text means. The author, presumably John, was a Jewish man who spoke Aramaic but the language of the source text is Koine Greek. Tsherefore, from the start, there is a kind of cultural intersemiotic issue that needs to be analyzed. Indeed, it was easy for the Greeks to identify themselves with one of the gods found in the pantheon, but this was not the case for Jews.

The present paper focuses on how a semiotic model can be applied to Bible translation. Since any analysis of 'semios' depends on a given context, the author will try to show how the pre-knowledge of the cultural background of both Language Source (LS) and Language Receptor (LR) challenge each other in order to discern what aspect of both Israelite and Hellenic cultures are translatable, on the one hand, and point out on the other hand, how the intersemios work between the Hebrew and Greek source languages and some Bantu receptor languages, such as Kikongo, Umbundu, and Lingala.

In addition, because many African biblical scholars and Bible translators read and study the biblical texts via European languages inherited from the colonial period, which are still used as their Languages of Wide Communication, the author will show how the European cultures influence the Bantu cultures so such an extent that the Bantu way of thinking becomes distorted. In this paper the focus will be on the semios "theoi", analyzed from various perspectives, that is, anthropological, theological, and socio-linguistic points of view.

Bionote: Edouard Kitoko-Nsiku is a theologian and philosopher from the Democratic Republic of Congo. He holds a PhD in Theology and Biblical Languages Studies (University of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa), the Honorary Degree of Doctor in Letters (United Graduate College and Seminary, Tennessee, USA), Post-Doctoral Studies in Linguistics (UEM-Mozambique).

PAPER 9:

Title: PARATEXT: SOFTWARE FOR BIBLE TRANSLATORS - Staying Close to the Cutting Edge

Speaker: Reinier de Blois

Abstract: Since 1997 thousands of Bible translators worldwide have been working with Paratext, a suite of programs, created by the United Bible Societies (UBS) for Bible Translation staff. In 2011 UBS and the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) decided to merge Paratext with SIL's Translation Editor (TE) and continue developing the resulting tool together under the name ParaTExt. Other tools of the suite are Publishing Assistant, Concordance Builder, Names Index Builder, the Digital Bible Library, and the Global Bible Catalogue. Together these programs offer Bible translators, publishers, and archivists a set of tools that cover almost all phases of the Bible Translation lifecycle. As a result, ParaTExt has become the de-facto standard in the Bible Translation world.

This paper will give a brief history of the development of this tool, followed by a description of the entire suite and the place of each individual tool within the Bible Translation lifecycle. The main focus will be on ParaTExt and the special functionality that it offers to Bible translators that are not usually included in other Bible software packages. We will see how Project MARBLE offers access to high quality resources to serve Bible translators all over the globe, including those that do not know Hebrew and Greek. We will also pay attention to ParaTExt's powerful Scripture editing and text checking functionality. In addition, there will be a section that demonstrates how ParaTExt can help ensure the consistency of a translation with the help of the Biblical Terms and Parallel Passage tools. We will also pay attention to a number of advanced features of the software, such as ParaTExt's statistical glossing technology. The paper will conclude with a brief description of several other tools that are part of the ParaTExt suite.

Bionote: Reinier de Blois has an MA in African Linguistics (University of Leiden) and a PhD in Biblical Hebrew Linguistics (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam). His area of specialization is Hebrew Lexicography. He is the editor of the Semantic Dictionary of Biblical Hebrew (SDBH, www.sdbh.org). He has worked with the United Bible Societies as Translation Consultant in Africa from 1990 until 2011. Since 2011 he is the Global Coordinator for the Institute of Computer Assisted Publishing

Concluding comments and discussion

Title: Future Innovation in Bible Translation

Speaker: Jacobus A. Naudé

Bionote: Jacobus Naudé (University of the Free State) is a member of the Afrikaans Bible translation project and serves on the advisory board of the Handbook of Translation Studies. He edited Contemporary Translation Studies and Bible Translations (2002), Language Practice: One Profession; Many Applications (2007), Socio-constructive Language Practice: Training in the South African Context (2008), Bible Translation and the Indigenous (2009).

 

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Last modified on Friday, 16 January 2015 16:44

Hu Zhuanglin Distinguished Translator Fellowship

In honour of Professor Hu Zhuanglin and his extraordinary contribution to Australian studies from the late 1970s, the Australian Studies Centre at Peking University (PKUASC) has established a Distinguished Translator Fellowship in his name, with the view of promoting Chinese translation in the field of Australian Studies.

The closing date for the 2014 Fellowship applications is July 31.

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